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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-35958
DIGITAL TURBINE, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware 22-2267658
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
110 San Antonio Street, Suite 160, Austin, TX
 78701
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
(512) 387-7717
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, Par Value $0.0001 Per ShareAPPSThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(NASDAQ Capital Market)
(Title of Class)(Trading Symbol)(Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered)
Securities registered under Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes ý    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes ý    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold on the NASDAQ Capital Market on September 30, 2020 was $2,818,538,255.
As of June 8, 2021, the Company had 93,315,883 shares of its common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.



DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The Company’s definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders or amendments to Form 10-K, which the registrant will file with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this report, is incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent stated herein.



Digital Turbine, Inc.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE PERIOD ENDED March 31, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  
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PART I
Safe Harbor Statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995
    Information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Annual Report" or "Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). We claim the protection of the safe harbor contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements, other than statements of historical facts included in this Form 10-K, regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, projected expenses, prospects, plans, and objectives of management are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from our future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements, which involve assumptions and describe our future plans, strategies, and expectations, are generally identifiable by use of the words “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “intend,” “future,” “plan,” or “project” or the negative of these words or other variations on these words or comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements are based on assumptions that may be incorrect, and there can be no assurance that any projections or other expectations included in any forward-looking statements will come to pass. Our actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to:
a decline in general economic conditions nationally and internationally;
decreased market demand for our products and services;
market acceptance and brand awareness of our products;
risks associated with indebtedness;
ability to comply with financial covenants in outstanding indebtedness;
the ability to protect our intellectual property rights;
impact of any litigation or infringement actions brought against us;
competition from other providers and products based on pricing and other activities;
risks and costs in product development;
the potential for unforeseen or underestimated cash requirements or liabilities;
risks associated with adoption of our products among existing customers and adoption of our platform and time to revenue with new customers (including the impact of possible delays with major partners in the roll-out of mobile phones and other devices deploying our products and other factors out of our control);
risks associated with delays in major mobile phone and other device launches, or the failure of such launches to achieve the scale and customer adoption that either we or the market may expect;
the impact of currency exchange rate fluctuations on our reported GAAP financial statements;
the challenges, given the Company’s comparatively small size, to expand the combined Company's global reach, accelerate growth, and create a scalable business model that drives EBITDA (as well as Adjusted EBITDA);
varying and often unpredictable levels of orders;
the challenges inherent in technology development necessary to maintain the Company’s competitive advantage, such as adherence to release schedules, costs and time required for finalization, and gaining market acceptance in new products;
technology management risk as the Company needs to adapt to the complex specifications of different partners and the management of a complex technology platform, given the Company's relatively limited resources;
inability to raise capital to fund continuing operations;
changes in government regulation;
volatility in the price of our common stock and ability to satisfy exchange continued-listing requirements;
rapid and complex changes occurring in the mobile device marketplace,
risks and uncertainties associated with the successful integration of our acquisitions of Triapodi Ltd., AdColony Holding AS, and Fyber N.V.;
risks associated with the failure or inability to pay the future consideration due in the AdColony and Fyber acquisitions;
challenges and risks associated with our rapid growth by acquisitions and resulting significant demands on our management and our infrastructure;
challenges and risks associated with our global operations and related business, political, regulatory, operational, financial and economic risks as a result of our global operations;
risks and uncertainties associated with the realization of the anticipated benefits of the aforementioned acquisitions; and
other risks described in the risk factors in Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors.”
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    Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should the underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results may differ significantly from those anticipated, believed, estimated, expected, intended, or planned. Except as required by applicable law, we do not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report. Accordingly, investors should use caution in relying on past forward-looking statements, which are based on known results and trends at the time they are made, to anticipate future results or trends.
    Unless the context otherwise indicates, the use of the terms “we,” “our," “us,” “Digital Turbine,” “DT,” or the “Company” refer to the collective businesses and operations of Digital Turbine, Inc. through its operating and wholly-owned subsidiaries Digital Turbine USA, Inc. (“DT USA”), Digital Turbine (EMEA) Ltd. (“DT EMEA”), Digital Turbine Australia Pty Ltd (“DT APAC”), Digital Turbine Singapore Pte. Ltd. (“DT Singapore”), Digital Turbine Luxembourg S.a.r.l. (“DT Luxembourg”), Digital Turbine Germany, GmbH (“DT Germany”), Digital Turbine Media, Inc. (“DT Media”), Mobile Posse, Inc. ("Mobile Posse"), Triapodi Ltd, and Triapodi Inc. (collectively, "Appreciate").
ITEM 1.BUSINESS
Current Operations
Digital Turbine, Inc., through its subsidiaries, simplifies content discovery and delivers it directly to mobile devices. Its on-device media platform powers frictionless application and content discovery, user acquisition and engagement, operational efficiency, and monetization opportunities. Through March 31, 2021, Digital Turbine's technology platform has been adopted by over 35 mobile operators and device original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") and has delivered more than 5.3 billion application preloads for tens of thousands of advertising campaigns. The Company operates this business as one operating and reportable segment - Media Distribution, which was previously referred to as the operating segment O&O (which refers to operators and OEMs) and the reportable segment Advertising.
As the Company's suite of product offerings expands, both organically and through acquisitions, we believe that this renaming of our reporting and operating segment better reflects the way management views the business. There are no changes or historical differences to product offerings and financial information that were referred to as the Advertising segment in prior periods. While advertising, in general, remains a focus of our Media Distribution segment, we feel that this change in name more accurately conveys to the reader what we do for our customers and partners.
The Company's Media Distribution business consists of products and services that simplify the discovery and delivery of mobile applications and content media for consumers.
Application Media represents the portion of the business where our platform delivers apps to end users through partnerships with carrier networks and OEMs. Application Media optimizes revenues by using developed technology to streamline, track, and manage app install demand from hundreds of application developers across various publishers, carriers, OEMs, and devices.
Content Media represents the portion of the business where our platform presents news, weather, sports, and other content directly within the native device experience (e.g., as the start page in the mobile browser, a widget, on unlock, etc.) through partnerships with carrier networks and OEMs. Content Media optimizes revenue by a combination of:
Programmatic Ad Partner Revenue – advertising within the content media that’s sold on an ad exchange at a market rate (CPM - Cost Per Thousand);
Sponsored Content – sponsored content media from 3rd party content providers, presented similarly to an ad, that is monetized when a recommended story is viewed (CPC – Cost Per Click);
Editorial Content – owned or licensed media, presented similarly to an ad, that is monetized when the media is clicked on (CPC - Cost Per Click).
With global headquarters in Austin, Texas and offices in Durham, North Carolina; San Francisco, California; Arlington, Virginia; São Paulo, Brazil; Mexico City, Mexico; Mumbai, India; Singapore; and Tel Aviv, Israel, Digital Turbine’s solutions are available worldwide. For additional information, please visit www.digitalturbine.com.
5


Acquisitions
The Company recently completed the below-described acquisitions of Appreciate, AdColony, and Fyber in order to help execute on its expressed strategy of becoming a leading end-to-end solution for mobile brand acquisition, advertising, and monetization.
Mobile Posse, Inc. On February 28, 2020, the Company completed the acquisition of Mobile Posse. The acquisition of Mobile Posse is consistent with the Company's strategy to provide a comprehensive media and advertising solution for operator and OEM partners while enriching the mobile experience for end users by delivering relevant media rich content to their fingertips. The addition of Mobile Posse's offerings will provide synergies and options for our partners and advertisers. The Company's suite of offerings continue to focus on promoting higher user engagement and boosting advertising revenue for mobile operators and OEMs. See Note “Acquisitions” to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report for more information.
Appreciate. On March 1, 2021, DT EMEA entered into a Share Purchase Agreement with Triapodi Ltd., an Israeli company (d/b/a Appreciate), the stockholder representative, and the stockholders of Appreciate pursuant to which DT EMEA acquired, on March 2, 2021, all of the outstanding capital stock of Appreciate in exchange for total consideration of $20.0 million in cash. In connection with the acquisition, under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, DT EMEA entered into bonus arrangements to pay up to $6.0 million in retention bonuses and performance bonuses to the founders and certain other employees of Appreciate. Appreciate is a programmatic mobile advertising demand-side platform ("DSP") company headquartered in Israel. Appreciate’s platform collaborates closely with mobile measurement partners (“MMPs”), exchanges, advertisers, and other partners to programmatically provide a transparent ecosystem designed to optimize user acquisition and ROI for the mobile advertisers utilizing its platform. Deploying Appreciate's technology expertise across Digital Turbine’s global scale and reach should further benefit partners and advertisers that are a part of the combined Company’s platform.
AdColony Holding AS. On April 29, 2021, DT Media completed the acquisition of AdColony Holding AS, a Norway company (“AdColony”), pursuant to a Share Purchase Agreement with AdColony and Otello Corporation ASA, a Norway company and the sole shareholder of AdColony (“Otello”). DT Media acquired all of the outstanding capital stock of AdColony in exchange for an estimated total consideration in the range of $350.0 million to $375.0 million, to be paid as follows: (1) $100.0 million in cash paid at closing (which was subject to customary closing purchase price adjustments), (2) $100.0 million in cash to be paid six months after closing, and (3) an estimated earn-out in the range of $150.0 million to $175.0 million, to be paid in cash, based on AdColony achieving certain future target net revenues, less associated cost of goods sold, over a twelve-month period ending on December 31, 2021 (the “Earn-Out Period”). Under the terms of the earn-out, DT Media would pay Otello a certain percentage of actual net revenues (less associated cost of goods sold) of AdColony depending on the extent to which AdColony achieves certain target net revenues (less associated cost of goods sold) over the Earn-Out Period. The earn-out payment will be made following the expiration of the Earn-Out Period. The Company paid the closing amount and intends to pay the remainder of the purchase price with a combination of available cash on hand and borrowings under its existing senior credit facility along with future capital financing. AdColony is a leading mobile advertising platform servicing advertisers and publishers with a reach of more than 1.5 billion monthly global users. AdColony’s proprietary video technologies and rich media formats are widely viewed as a best-in-class technology delivering third-party verified viewability rates for well-known global brands.
Fyber, N.V. On May 25, 2021, the Company and DT Media completed the initial closing of the acquisition of 523,553,108 shares, representing approximately 95.1% of the outstanding voting shares (the “Majority Fyber Shares”) of Fyber N.V., a public limited liability company registered with the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce Business Register (“Fyber”), pursuant to a Sale and Purchase Agreement between Tennor Holding B.V., Advert Finance B.V., and Lars Windhorst (collectively, the “Seller”), the Company, and DT Luxembourg. The Seller transferred and delivered 400,000,000 shares of the Majority Fyber Shares to DT Media on the closing date and will deliver the remaining 123,553,108 shares of the Majority Fyber Shares to DT Media in June 2021. The remaining approximately 4.9% of the shares in Fyber (the “Minority Fyber Shares”) are widely held by other shareholders of Fyber (the “Minority Fyber Shareholders”).
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DT Media acquired the Majority Fyber Shares in exchange for an estimated aggregate consideration of up to $600.0 million, consisting of (i) $150.0 million in cash, which was subject to adjustments for certain items including the amount of cash consideration to be paid to the Minority Fyber Shareholders for the Minority Fyber Shares, paid at the closing of the acquisition, (ii) 3,216,935 newly issued shares of common stock of the Company equal in value to $235.0 million (based on the volume-weighted average price of the common stock on NASDAQ during the 30-day period prior to the closing date), issued at the closing of the acquisition, (iii) 2,599,653 newly issued shares of common stock of the Company equal in value to $165.0 million (based on the volume-weighted average price of the common stock on NASDAQ during the 30-day period prior to the closing date), to be issued in June 2021 after the receipt by the Company of a tax exemption certificate from the Israel Tax Authority, and (iv) contingent upon Fyber’s net revenues being equal or higher than $100.0 million for the 12-month earn-out period ending on March 31, 2022, as determined in the manner set forth in the Sale and Purchase Agreement, a certain number of shares of Company common stock, which will be newly-issued to the Seller at the end of the earn-out period, and under certain circumstances, an amount of cash, which value of such shares and cash in aggregate will not exceed $50.0 million (subject to set-off against certain potential indemnification claims against the Seller). The Company paid the cash closing amount on the closing date, and intends to pay the remainder of the cash consideration for the acquisition with a combination of available cash on hand, borrowings under the Company’s senior credit facility, and proceeds from future capital financings.
Fyber is a leading mobile advertising monetization platform empowering global app developers to optimize profitability through quality advertising. Fyber’s proprietary technology platform and expertise in mediation, real-time bidding, advanced analytics tools, and video combine to deliver publishers and advertisers a highly valuable app monetization solution.
Pursuant to certain German law on public takeovers, following the closing, the Company is obligated to make a public tender offer to the Minority Fyber Shareholders to acquire from them the Minority Fyber Shares. The tender offer will be subject to certain minimum price rules under German law. The timing and the conditions of the tender offer, including the consideration offered to the Minority Fyber Shareholders in connection with the tender offer, will be subsequently determined by the Company pursuant to the applicable Dutch and German takeover laws. The Company anticipates completing the tender offer during the second fiscal quarter 2022.
Information about Discontinued Operations
On April 29, 2018, the Company entered into two distinct disposition agreements with respect to selected assets owned by our subsidiaries.
DT APAC and DT Singapore (together, “Pay Seller”), each wholly owned subsidiaries of the Company, entered into an Asset Purchase Pay Agreement (the “Pay Agreement”), dated as of April 23, 2018, with Chargewave Ptd Ltd (“Pay Purchaser”) to sell certain assets (the “Pay Assets”) owned by the Pay Seller related to the Company’s Direct Carrier Billing business. The Pay Purchaser is principally owned and controlled by Jon Mooney, an officer of the Pay Seller. At the closing of the asset sale, Mr. Mooney was no longer employed by the Company or Pay Seller. As consideration for this asset sale, Digital Turbine is entitled to receive certain license fees, profit sharing and equity participation rights as outlined in the Company’s Form 8-K filed May 1, 2018 with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The transaction was completed in July 2018. With the sale of these assets, the Company exited the segment previously referred to as the Content business.
DT Media (the “A&P Seller”), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “A&P Agreement”), dated as of April 28, 2018, with Creative Clicks B.V. (the “A&P Purchaser”) to sell business relationships with various advertisers and publishers (the “A&P Assets”) related to the Company’s Advertising and Publishing ("A&P") business. As consideration for this asset sale, we are entitled to receive a percentage of the gross profit, as defined by the A&P Agreement, derived from these customer agreements for a period of three years as outlined in the Company’s Form 8-K filed May 1, 2018 with the SEC. The transaction was completed in June 2018. With the sale of these assets, the Company exited the segment of its Advertising business previously referred to as the A&P business.
These dispositions have allowed the Company to benefit from a streamlined business model, simplified operating structure, and enhanced management focus.
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As a result of these dispositions, the results of operations from our Content reporting segment and A&P business within the Media Distribution reporting segment, previously referred to as the Advertising reporting segment, are reported as “Net loss from discontinued operations, net of taxes” and the related assets and liabilities are classified as “held for disposal" in the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report. The Company has recast prior period amounts presented within this Annual Report to provide visibility and comparability. All discussion herein, unless otherwise noted, refers to our remaining operating segment after the dispositions, the Media Distribution business. See Note “Discontinued Operations” to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
Information about Segment and Geographic Revenue
As a result of the dispositions, the Company now manages its business in one operating segment, the Media Distribution business, which is presented as one reportable segment: Media Distribution. Information about segment and geographic revenue is set forth in Note "Segment and Geographic Information" to our consolidated financial statements under Item 8 of this Annual Report.
Media Distribution Business
The Company's Media Distribution business is an advertiser solution for unique and exclusive carrier and OEM inventory, which is comprised of our core platform and other recurring and life-cycle products, features, and professional services delivered on this platform.
Our technology platform enables mobile operators and OEMs to control, manage, and monetize devices through application installation at the time of activation and over the life of a mobile device through a variety of offerings, allowing mobile operators to personalize the application activation experience for customers and monetize their home screens via revenue share agreements such as: Cost-Per-Install (CPI), Cost-Per-Placement (CPP), Cost-Per-Action (CPA) with third-party advertisers; or via Per-Device-License Fees (PDL) agreements which allow operators and OEMs to leverage the platform, products, and features for a structured fee. There are several different delivery methods available to operators and OEMs on first boot of the device: Wizard, Silent, or Software Development Kit ("SDK"). We also provide additional platform monetization options, outside of our core application delivery technology, that monetize user actions over the life-cycle of a device by delivering targeted media-rich advertising content to the end-user. Additional products and features are available throughout the life-cycle of the device that provide operators and OEMs an opportunity for additional revenue streams. The Company has launched its platform with mobile operators and OEMs in North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, India and Israel.
Competition
The distribution of applications; media content; and the development, distribution and sale of mobile products and services is a highly competitive business. We compete for advertising partners on the basis of positioning, brand, quality and price. We compete for carrier and manufacturer placement based on these factors, as well as historical performance. We compete for platform deployment contracts with other media distribution platform companies. We also compete for experienced and talented employees.
Digital Turbine has internally-developed solutions for operators and OEMs including device application management solutions, programmatic advertising and targeted media delivery, and other value added services. Our platform is a patent-pending media distribution solution that enables operators and OEMs to pre-install and manage applications from a single web interface as well as generate additional revenue streams over the life of a device.
Our primary competition for traditional application distribution comes from the Google Play application store. Broadly, our media distribution platform faces competition from existing operator solutions built internally, as well as companies providing application and content media products and services, such as: Facebook, Snapchat, IronSource, WPP, Omnicom, Criteo, QuinStreet, InMobi, Cheetah Mobile, Baidu, Tremor International, Magnite, Brightcove, Applovin, and others. These companies can be both customers for Digital Turbine products, as well as competitors in certain cases. We compete with smaller competitors, but the more material competition is internally-developed operator solutions and specific media distribution solutions built in-house by OEMs and wireless operators. Some of our existing wireless operators could make a strategic decision to develop their own solutions rather than continue to use our suite of products, which could be a material source of competition. And finally, although we do not see any competition from larger Enterprise application players such as IBM, Citrix, Oracle, or MobileIron, it is possible they could decide to compete against our platform.
8


Product Development
Our product development expenses consist primarily of salaries and benefits for employees working on campaign management, creating, developing, editing, programming, performing quality assurance, obtaining carrier certification and deploying our products across various mobile phone carriers and on our internal platforms. We devote substantial resources to the development, technology support, and quality assurance of our products. Total product development costs incurred for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 were $20.1 million, $12.0 million, and $10.9 million, respectively.
Intellectual Property
We consider our trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, patent and other intellectual property rights, including those in our know-how and the software code of our proprietary technology, to be, in the aggregate, material to our business. We protect our intellectual property rights by relying on federal and state statutory and common law rights, foreign laws where applicable, as well as contractual restrictions.
As of March 31, 2021, we have 6 U.S. patents and 3 U.S. patent applications related to different components of our platform. In addition, we own and use trademarks and service marks on or in connection with our proprietary technology and related services, including both unregistered common law marks and issued trademark registrations.
We design, test and update our products, services and websites regularly, and we have developed our proprietary solutions in-house. Our know-how is an important element of our intellectual property. The development and management of our platform requires sophisticated coordination among many specialized employees. We take steps to protect our know-how, trade secrets and other confidential information, in part, by entering into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, developers and vendors who have access to our confidential information, and generally limiting access to and distribution of our confidential information.
We intend to pursue additional intellectual property protection to the extent we believe it would advance our business objectives and maintain our competitive position.
Contracts with Customers
We have both exclusive and non-exclusive carrier and OEM agreements. Our agreements with advertisers are generally non-exclusive. Our carrier and OEM agreements for our Advertising business are multi-year agreements, with terms that are generally longer than one to two years. In addition, some carrier agreements provide that the carrier can terminate the agreement early and, in some instances, at any time without cause, which could give them the ability to renegotiate economic or other terms. The agreements generally do not obligate the carriers to market or distribute any of our products or services. In many of these agreements, we warrant that our products do not violate community standards, do not contain libelous content, do not contain material defects or viruses, and do not violate third-party intellectual property rights and we indemnify the carrier for any breach of a third-party’s intellectual property. Most of our sales are made either directly to application developers, advertising agencies representing application developers or through advertising aggregators.
We generally have numerous advertisers who represent a significant level of business. Coupled with advertiser concentration, we distribute a significant level of advertising through one operator. If such advertising clients or this operator decided to materially reduce or discontinue its use of our platform, it could cause an immediate and significant decline in our revenue and negatively affect our results of operations and financial condition.
With respect to customer revenue concentration, during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, no single customer represented more than 10% of net revenues. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, one major customer, Oath Inc., a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, represented 15.3% of net revenues. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, one major customers, Oath Inc., a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, represented 28.6% of net revenues.
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With respect to partner revenue concentration, the Company partners with mobile carriers and OEMs to deliver applications on our platform through the carrier network. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, T-Mobile US Inc., including Sprint and other subsidiaries, a carrier partner, generated 26.4%, AT&T Inc., including its Cricket subsidiary, a carrier partner, generated 22.3%, Verizon Wireless, a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, a carrier partner, generated 18.5%, and America Movil, primarily through its subsidiary Tracfone Wireless Inc., a carrier partner, generated 10.8% of our net revenues. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, Verizon Wireless, a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, a carrier partner, generated 37.3%, AT&T Inc., including its Cricket subsidiary, a carrier partner, generated 30.0%, and America Movil, primarily through its subsidiary Tracfone Wireless Inc., a carrier partner, generated 10.7% of our net revenues. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, Verizon Wireless, a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, a carrier partner, generated 45.9% and AT&T Inc., including its Cricket subsidiary, a carrier partner, generated 38.7% of our net revenues.
Business Seasonality
Our revenue, cash flow from operations, operating results and other key operating and financial measures may vary from quarter to quarter due to the seasonal nature of advertiser spending. For example, many advertisers (and their agencies) devote a disproportionate amount of their budgets to the fourth quarter of the calendar year to coincide with increased holiday spending. We expect our revenue, cash flow, operating results and other key operating and financial measures to fluctuate based on seasonal factors from period to period and expect these measures to be generally higher in the third and fourth fiscal quarters than in prior quarters.
People and Culture
We believe the strength of our workforce is critical to our success as we strive to become a more inclusive and diverse technology company. As of March 31, 2021, we employed 280 full-time employees. Our key human capital management objectives are to attract, retain, and develop the talent we need to deliver on our commitment to offer and deliver exceptional products and services. Examples of our key programs and initiatives that are focused to achieve these objectives include:
Total Compensation and Benefits. Our guiding principles are anchored on the goals of being able to attract, incentivize, and retain talented employees. We believe in economic security for all employees and have adopted a living wage policy. All employees are eligible for performance bonuses of at least 10% of base salary, which can be paid out significantly higher based on performance. In addition, each employee receives a new-hire long-term incentive stock option grant and an annual long-term incentive stock option grant. We also provide our employees twelve weeks of paid short-term disability at 100% of base pay, which includes parental leave.
Inclusion and Diversity. We take great pride in our diversity and inclusion. We seek a diverse and inclusive work environment and transparently measure our progress to ensure that our employee populations are reflective of the communities in which we reside. We evaluate all of our people practices, particularly in talent acquisition and pay equity. We benchmark our demographics to our industry, both at an overall level and a professional category level (VPs and above, directors, managers, individual contributors, and administrative), and note that we are either at the high end or exceed the benchmark in every diversity category.
Culture and Values. We have adopted our culture values of Hustle, Results, Accountability, Global, Freedom and Laugh to help create and foster a culture where every employee is empowered, engaged and trusted to be their best at work. We sponsor and support our Community Action Teams, which is an employee-led program designed to create purposeful action to build a stronger and better-connected team. The Community Action Teams have helped drive meaningful advancements in on-boarding, cross-functional understanding, a mentoring program, and a Digital Turbine Gives campaign where employees volunteer in the community over a six-week period on an annual basis.
Workplace Flexibility. As part of our “Freedom” value, and before the COVID-19 pandemic drove a shift to remote work, we established a workplace strategy to provide more flexible work options to enable employees to work from the location and with the schedule they desire. As a result, we had process, culture, and technology in place that allowed us to seamlessly pivot to a fully remote workforce following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of the shift to fully remote work, we provided an allowance of up to one thousand dollars for each employee for home office set-up or personal expenses such as tutoring or caregiving services. We also re-purposed computers for employees who required more devices to support remote learning for dependents.
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Government Regulation
We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States and abroad that involve matters central to our business. These laws and regulations involve matters including privacy, data use, data protection and personal information, rights of publicity, content, intellectual property, advertising, marketing, consumer protection, taxation, anti-corruption and political law compliance, and securities law compliance. In particular, we are subject to federal, state, and foreign laws regarding privacy and protection of people's data. Foreign data protection, privacy, and other laws and regulations can impose different obligations or be more restrictive than those in the United States. Refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for further discussion of government regulations and the associated risks.
History of Digital Turbine, Inc.
The Company was originally incorporated in the State of Delaware on November 6, 1998. In January 2015, the Company changed its name to Digital Turbine, Inc. and its NASDAQ ticker symbol to APPS.
In March 2015, the Company, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, acquired Appia, Inc., which was renamed Digital Turbine Media, Inc. and is referred to in this Form 10-K as “DT Media.”
In February 2020, the Company acquired all of the capital stock of Mobile Posse, Inc ("Mobile Posse").
On March 1, 2021, Digital Turbine, through its subsidiary DT EMEA, an Israeli company and wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, entered into a Share Purchase Agreement with Appreciate, the stockholder representative, and the stockholders of Appreciate, pursuant to which DT EMEA acquired, on March 2, 2021, all of the outstanding capital stock of Appreciate.
Subsequently to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, in connection with the Company’s strategy to be a leading end-to-end solution for mobile brand acquisition, advertising, and monetization, the Company completed the acquisition of AdColony on April 29, 2021 and the acquisition of Fyber on May 25, 2021.
Available Information
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge on our website at http://www.digitalturbine.com generally when such reports are available on the SEC website. The contents of our website are not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The public may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.
ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Current investors and potential investors should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below together with all other information contained in this Form 10-K before making investment decisions with respect to our common stock. The business, financial condition and operating results of the Company can be affected by a number of factors, whether currently known or unknown, including but not limited to those described below, any one or more of which could, directly or indirectly, cause the Company’s actual results of operations and financial condition to vary materially from past, or from anticipated future, results of operations and financial condition. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations and our future growth prospects would be materially and adversely affected. Under these circumstances, the trading price and value of our common stock could decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described in this Form 10-K are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties of which we are not presently aware, or that we currently consider immaterial, may also affect our business operations.
Past financial performance should not be considered to be a reliable indicator of future performance, and current and potential investors should not use historical trends to anticipate results or trends in future periods.
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Risk Factors Summary
Our business operations are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those outside our control, that could cause our business, financial condition, or operating results to be harmed, including risks regarding the following:
General Risks
The markets for our products and services are rapidly evolving and may decline or experience limited growth.
We may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We have a limited operating history for our current portfolio of assets.
The failure to successfully integrate our recent acquisitions may adversely affect our future results.
The failure to pay the future consideration due in the AdColony and Fyber acquisitions could have a material adverse effect.
Growth may place significant demands on our management and our infrastructure.
Our operations are global in scope, and we face added business, political, regulatory, operational, financial and economic risks as a result of our international operations.
Our financial results could vary significantly from quarter to quarter and are difficult to predict.
If we are unsuccessful in establishing and increasing awareness of our brand and recognition of our products and services, our operating results and financial condition could be harmed.
Our business is dependent on the continued growth in usage of smartphones and other mobile connected devices.
If mobile connected devices, their operating systems or content distribution channels develop in ways that prevent advertising or content from being delivered to their users, our ability to grow our business will be impaired.
If we fail to deliver our products and services ahead of the commercial launch of new mobile handset models, our sales may suffer.
We may be unable to develop and introduce in a timely way new products or services, and our products and services may have defects, which could harm our brand.
If we fail to maintain and enhance our capabilities for our offerings to a broad array of mobile operating systems, our sales could suffer.
We may be subject to legal liability associated with providing mobile and online services.
Our business is dependent on our ability to maintain and scale our infrastructure, and any significant disruption in our service could damage our reputation, result in a potential loss of customers and adversely affect our financial results.
Our products, services and systems rely on software that is highly technical, and if it contains undetected errors, our business could be adversely affected.
We rely upon third-party data centers and providers of cloud-based infrastructure to host our platform. Any disruption in the operations of these third-party providers could adversely affect our business.
Our business is highly dependent on decisions and developments in the mobile device industry.
Our business may depend in part on our ability to collect and use location-based information about mobile connected device users.
We do not have long-term agreements with advertiser clients, and we may be unable to retain key clients, attract new clients or replace departing clients with clients that can provide comparable revenue.
Our business practices with respect to data could give rise to liabilities or reputational harm as a result of governmental regulation, legal requirements or industry standards relating to consumer privacy and data protection.
Our business may involve the use, transmission and storage of confidential information, and the failure to properly safeguard such information could result in significant reputational harm and monetary damages.
System security risks and cyber-attacks could disrupt our internal operations or information technology services provided to customers.
Advertising Risks
Our revenues may fluctuate significantly based on mobile device sell-through, over which we have no control.
Our growth and monetization on mobile devices depend upon effective operation with mobile operating systems, networks, and standards that we do not control as we are largely an Android-based technology provider.
We currently rely on wireless carriers and OEMs to distribute our products and services and thus to generate much of our revenues. The loss of or a change in any of these significant carrier relationships could cause us to lose access to their subscribers and thus materially reduce our revenues.
The mobile advertising business is an intensely competitive industry, and we may not be able to compete successfully.
The Company’s advertising business depends on our ability to collect and use data to deliver applications, and any limitation on the collection and use of this data could significantly diminish the value of the Company’s services.
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Risks Related to Our Market
If we fail to develop and publish new products and services that achieve market acceptance, our sales would suffer.
The strategic direction of the Company's businesses is developing and not completely proven or certain.
Risks Relating to Our Industry
Wireless technologies are changing rapidly, and we may not be successful in working with these new technologies.
The complexity of and incompatibilities among mobile handsets may require us to use additional resources for the development of our products and services.
If wireless subscribers do not continue to use their mobile handsets to access mobile content and other applications, our business growth and future revenues may be adversely affected.
A shift of technology platform by wireless carriers and mobile handset manufacturers could lengthen the development period for our offerings, increase our costs, and cause our offerings to be published later than anticipated.
Our business depends on the growth and maintenance of wireless communications infrastructure.
Actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in devices or wireless networks could adversely affect our revenues.
Risks Related to Our Management, Employees, and Acquisitions
Our business and growth may suffer if we are unable to hire and retain key talent, who are in high demand.
The acquisition of other technologies could result in operating difficulties, dilution, and other harmful consequences.
Changes to financial accounting standards could make it more expensive to issue stock options to employees, which would increase compensation costs and might cause us to change our business practices.
Risks Related to Potential Liability, Our Intellectual Property, and Our Content
If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property rights, it may be possible for third parties to obtain and improperly use our intellectual property and our competitive position may be adversely affected.
Third parties may sue us for intellectual property infringement, which, if successful, may disrupt our business and could require us to pay significant damage awards.
Our business in countries with a history of corruption and transactions with foreign governments, including with government owned or controlled wireless carriers, increase the risks associated with our international activities.
Government regulation of our marketing methods could restrict our ability to adequately advertise and promote our content, products and services available in certain jurisdictions.
Risks Relating to Our Common Stock and Capital Structure
The Company has secured and unsecured indebtedness, which could limit our financial flexibility.
To service our debt and fund our other capital requirements, we will require a significant amount of cash, and our ability to generate cash will depend on many factors beyond our control.
The market price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations, and you may be unable to resell your shares at or above the current price.
The sale of securities by us in any equity or debt financing, or the issuance of new shares related to an acquisition, could lower the market price for our common stock.
Risks Related to Our Business
General Risks
The markets for our products and services are rapidly evolving and may decline or experience limited growth.
The industry in which we operate is characterized by rapid technological change, new features, tools, solutions and strategies, evolving legal and regulatory requirements, changing customer needs and a dynamic competitive market. Our future success will depend in large part on the continued growth of our markets and our ability to improve and expand our products and services to respond quickly and effectively to this growth.
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The opportunities provided by apps, mobile advertising and other engagement touchpoints in mobile devices are still relatively new, and our customers, which include advertisers, app developers, advertising networks, wireless carriers and OEMs, may not recognize the need for, or benefits of, some or all of our products and services. Moreover, they may decide to adopt alternative products and services to satisfy some portion of their business needs.
If we fail to deliver timely releases of products that are ready for use, release a new version, service, tool or update, or respond to new offerings by competitors, or if new technologies emerge that are able to deliver competitive products or services more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely than our products and services, then our position in our markets could be harmed, and we could lose customers, which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Further, we must be able to keep pace with rapid regulatory changes in order to compete successfully in our markets. Our revenue growth depends on our ability to respond to frequently changing data protection regulations, policies and user demands and expectations, which will require us to incur additional costs to implement. The regulatory landscape in this industry is rapidly shifting, and we may become subject to new regulations that restrict our operations or materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our ability to succeed within the markets that our products and services address and continue to be profitable in the future depends upon a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with our individual products and services. Significant time, resources and expertise are required in order to build the technology that can deliver automated, high-quality user growth and monetization, while meeting user expectations for tailored experiences and relevant advertising.
The markets for our products and services could fail to grow significantly or there could be a reduction in demand for our products or services as a result of a lack of customer acceptance, technological challenges, competing products and services, decreases in spending by current and prospective customers, weakening economic conditions and other causes. If our markets do not continue to experience growth or if the demand for our products and services decreases, then our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We have a history of net losses, may incur substantial net losses in the future, and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We expect to continue to increase expenses as we implement initiatives designed to continue to grow our business, including, among other things, the development and marketing of new products and services, further international and domestic expansion, expansion of our infrastructure, development of systems and processes, acquisition of content, and general and administrative expenses associated with being a public company. If our revenues do not increase at a level to offset these expected increases in operating expenses, we will incur losses and will not be profitable. Our revenue growth in past periods should not be considered indicative of our future performance. In fact, in future periods, our revenues could decline as they have in past years. Accordingly, we may not be able to achieve profitability in the future.
If there are delays in the distribution of our products or if we are unable to successfully negotiate with advertisers, application developers, carriers, mobile operators or OEMs or if these negotiations cannot occur on a timely basis, we may not be able to generate revenues sufficient to meet the needs of the business in the foreseeable future or at all.
We have a limited operating history for our current portfolio of assets, which may make it difficult to evaluate our business.
Evaluation of our business and our prospects must be considered in light of our limited operating history and the risks and uncertainties encountered by companies in our stage of development. As a developing company in the emerging mobile application industry, we face increased risks, uncertainties, expenses and difficulties. To address these risks and uncertainties, we must do the following:
maintain our current, and develop new, wireless carrier, OEM, application developer and advertiser relationships, in both international and domestic markets;
retain or improve our current revenue-sharing arrangements;
continue to develop new high-quality products and services that achieve significant market acceptance;
continue to develop and upgrade our technology;
continue to enhance our information processing systems;
increase the number of end users of our products and services;
execute our business and marketing strategies successfully;
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respond to competitive developments; and
attract, integrate, retain and motivate qualified talent.
We may be unable to accomplish one or more of these objectives, which could cause our business to suffer. In addition, accomplishing many of these efforts may be very expensive, which could adversely impact our operating results and financial condition.
The failure to successfully integrate the business and operations of our recent acquisitions in the expected time frame may adversely affect our future results.
We recently completed the acquisitions of Triapodi Ltd. (d/b/a Appreciate) (“Appreciate”) on March 2, 2021 and AdColony Holding AS (“AdColony”) on April 29, 2021 and Fyber N.V. ("Fyber") on May 25, 2021. We believe the acquisitions of Appreciate, AdColony, and Fyber will result in certain benefits, including providing vertical integrations integral to achieving the Company's strategic goal of being a powerful, best-in-class, end-to-end solution for mobile brand acquisition, advertising, and monetization. To realize these anticipated benefits, however, the businesses of Appreciate, AdColony, and Fyber must be successfully integrated. The success of the acquisitions will depend on our ability to realize these anticipated benefits from integrating all three businesses. The acquisitions may fail to realize the anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons, including the following:
failure to harmonize the full vertical operations;
failure to successfully take advantage of revenue growth opportunities;
failure to effectively coordinate sales and marketing efforts to communicate the capabilities of the complementary offerings;
the burden of integrating three businesses simultaneously on talent and systems;
potential difficulties integrating and harmonizing operations and other key functions;
failure to successfully scale and grow human and system resources to meet the demands of a larger international organization;
the loss of key employees; and
failure to combine product offerings quickly and effectively.
The integration may result in additional and unforeseen expenses or delays. If we are unable to successfully integrate the business and operations of our recent acquisitions, or if there are delays in integrating the businesses, the anticipated benefits of the acquisitions may not be realized or may take longer to realize than expected.
The failure to pay the future consideration due in the AdColony and Fyber acquisitions could have a material adverse effect.
Under the terms of the Share Purchase Agreement for the acquisition of AdColony, we must pay $100.0 million in cash on or before October 29, 2021 and an earn-out payment estimated between $150.0 million to $175.0 million in cash following December 31, 2021. In addition, under the terms of the Sale and Purchase Agreement for the acquisition of Fyber, we must pay the tender offer consideration in cash and a potential earn-out payment of up to $50.0 million, which may be paid in shares of our common stock or, under certain circumstances, in cash. In order to fund the future cash payments due in respect of the AdColony and Fyber acquisitions, we will need to use cash flows from operations and borrowings under our existing revolving credit facility and may need to access the capital markets. If our cash flows and borrowings under our revolving credit facility are not available for any reason, we would be forced to seek funds from the capital markets. We may not be able to effect any such monies on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, we might not raise sufficient funds to meet such payment obligations. Any such event would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and business.
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Growth may place significant demands on our management and our infrastructure.
In recent years, we have significantly grown the scale of our business. In addition, we recently consummated the acquisitions of Appreciate, AdColony, and Fyber. The growth and expansion of our business places significant strain on our management and our operational and financial resources. As we expand our product and service offerings and the usage of our platform grows, we will need to devote additional resources to improving its capabilities, features and functionality, and scaling our business, IT, financial, operating and administrative systems. There can be no assurance that we will appropriately allocate our resources in a manner that results in increased revenue or other growth in our business. Any failure of or delay in these efforts could result in impaired performance and reduced customer satisfaction, which would hurt our revenue growth and our reputation. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. Even if we are successful in our expansion and integration efforts, they will be expensive and complex and require the dedication of significant management time and attention. We may also suffer inefficiencies or service disruptions as a result of our efforts to scale our internal infrastructure. We cannot be sure that the expansion and integration of and improvements to our internal infrastructure will be effectively implemented on a timely basis, if at all, and such failures could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our growth has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure. Continued growth could strain our ability to:
develop and improve our operational, financial and management controls;
enhance our reporting systems and procedures;
recruit, train and retain highly skilled talent;
maintain our quality standards; and
maintain branded content owner, wireless carrier and end-user satisfaction.
Managing our growth will require significant expenditures and allocation of valuable management resources. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as it grows, our business, operating results and financial condition would be harmed.
Our operations are global in scope, and we face added business, political, regulatory, operational, financial, and economic risks as a result of our international operations and distribution, any of which could increase our costs and hinder our growth.
Our operations are global in scope, with operations, sales presence and customers in multiple countries. We are continuing to adapt to and develop strategies to address global markets, but we cannot assure you that such efforts will be successful. We expect that our global activities will continue to grow for the foreseeable future as we continue to pursue opportunities in existing and new global industries, which will require the dedication of management attention and financial resources.
We expect international sales and growth to continue to be an important component of our revenues and operations. Risks affecting our international operations include:
challenges caused by distance, language and cultural differences;
multiple and conflicting laws and regulations, including complications due to unexpected changes in these laws and regulations;
the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations;
higher costs associated with doing business internationally;
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
greater fluctuations in sales to end users and through carriers in developing countries, including longer payment cycles and greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable;
protectionist laws and business practices that favor local businesses in some countries;
foreign tax consequences;
foreign exchange controls that might prevent us from repatriating income earned in outside the United States;
price controls;
the servicing of regions by many different carriers;
imposition of public sector controls;
political, economic and social instability, including relating to the current European sovereign debt crisis;
restrictions on the export or import of technology;
trade and tariff restrictions;
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variations in tariffs, quotas, taxes and other market barriers; and
difficulties in enforcing intellectual property rights in countries other than the United States.
In addition, developing user interfaces that are compatible with other languages or cultures can be expensive. As a result, our ongoing international expansion efforts may be more costly than we expect. Further, expansion into developing countries subjects us to the effects of regional instability, civil unrest and hostilities, and could adversely affect us by disrupting communications and making travel more difficult. These risks could harm our international expansion efforts, which, in turn, could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our financial results could vary significantly from quarter to quarter and are difficult to predict.
Our revenues and operating results could vary significantly from quarter to quarter because of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition, we are not able to predict our future revenues or results of operations. We base our current and future expense levels on our internal operating plans and sales forecasts, and our operating costs are to a large extent fixed. As a result, we may not be able to reduce our costs sufficiently to compensate for an unexpected shortfall in revenues, and even a small shortfall in revenues could disproportionately and adversely affect financial results for that quarter. Individual products and services, and carrier and OEM relationships, represent meaningful portions of our revenues and margins in any quarter.
In addition to other risk factors discussed in this section, factors that may contribute to the variability of our results include:
the number of new products and services released by us and our competitors;
the timing of release of new products and services by us and our competitors, particularly those that may represent a significant portion of revenues in a period;
the popularity of new products and services, and products and services released in prior periods;
changes in prominence of deck placement for our leading products and those of our competitors;
the timing of charges related to impairments of goodwill, and intangible assets;
changes in pricing policies by us, our competitors, our vendors or our carriers and other distributors;
changes in the mix of direct versus indirect advertising sales, which have varying margin profiles;
changes in the mix of CPI, CPP, CPA, and license fee sales, which have varying revenue and margin profiles;
the seasonality of our industry;
fluctuations in the size and rate of growth of overall consumer demand for mobile products and services;
strategic decisions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, divestitures, spin-offs, joint ventures, strategic investments or changes in business strategy;
our success in entering new geographic markets;
decisions by one or more of our partners and/or customers to terminate our business relationship(s);
foreign exchange fluctuations;
accounting rules governing recognition of revenue;
general economic, political and market conditions and trends;
the timing of compensation expense associated with equity compensation grants; and
decisions by us to incur additional expenses for product and service development.
As a result of these and other factors, including seasonality attributable to the holiday seasons, our operating results may not meet the expectations of investors or public market analysts who choose to follow our company. Our failure to meet market expectations would likely result in decreases in the trading price of our common stock.
Placement of our products and services, or the failure of the market to accept our products and services, would likely adversely impact our revenues and thus our operating results and financial condition.
Wireless carriers provide a limited selection of products that are accessible to their subscribers through their mobile handsets. The inherent limitation on the volume of products available on the handset is a function of the screen size of handsets and carriers’ perceptions of the depth of menus and numbers of choices end users will generally utilize. If carriers choose to give our products less favorable placement or reduce our slot count on the phone, our products may be less successful than we anticipate, our revenues may decline and our business, operating results and financial condition may be materially harmed. In addition, if carriers or other participants in the market favor another competitor’s products over our products, or opt not to enable and implement our technology to unify operating systems, our future growth could suffer and our revenues could be negatively affected.
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If we are unsuccessful in establishing and increasing awareness of our brand and recognition of our products and services or if we incur excessive expenses promoting and maintaining our brand or our products and services, our potential revenues could be limited, our costs could increase, and our operating results and financial condition could be harmed.
We believe that establishing and maintaining our brand is critical to retaining and expanding our existing relationships with wireless carriers, OEMs, application developers and advertisers as well as developing new relationships. Promotion of the Company’s brands will depend on our success in providing high-quality products and services. Similarly, recognition of our products and services by users will depend on our ability to develop engaging products and quality services to maintain existing, and attract new, business relationships and users. However, our success will also depend, in part, on the services and efforts of third parties, over which we have little or no control. For instance, if our carriers fail to provide high levels of service, our end users’ ability to access our products and services may be interrupted, which may adversely affect our brand. If end users, carriers, OEMs, advertisers and application developers do not perceive our offerings as high-quality or if we introduce new products and services that are not favorably received by our end users, carriers, OEMs, advertisers and application developers, then we may be unsuccessful in building brand recognition and brand loyalty in the marketplace. In addition, globalizing and extending our brand and recognition of our products and services will be costly and will involve extensive management time to execute successfully. Further, the markets in which we operate are highly competitive and some of our competitors already have substantially more brand name recognition and greater marketing resources than we do. If we fail to increase brand awareness and consumer recognition of our products and services, our potential revenues could be limited, our costs could increase and our business, operating results and financial condition could suffer.
Our business is dependent on the continued growth in usage of smartphones, tablets, and other mobile connected devices.
Our business depends on the continued proliferation of mobile connected devices, such as smartphones and tablets, which can connect to the Internet over a cellular, wireless or other network, as well as the increased consumption of content through those devices. Consumer usage of these mobile connected devices may be inhibited for a number of reasons, such as:
inadequate network infrastructure to support advanced features beyond just mobile web access;
users’ concerns about the security of these devices;
inconsistent quality of cellular or wireless connection;
unavailability of cost-effective, high-speed Internet service;
changes in network carrier pricing plans that charge device users based on the amount of data consumed; and
new technology which is not compatible with our products and offerings.
For any of these reasons, users of mobile connected devices may limit the amount of time they spend on these devices and the number of applications or amount of content they download on these devices. If user adoption of mobile connected devices and consumer consumption of content on those devices do not continue to grow, our total addressable market size may be significantly limited, which could compromise our ability to increase our revenue and our ability to become profitable.
If mobile connected devices, their operating systems, or content distribution channels, including those controlled by our competitors, develop in ways that prevent advertising or content from being delivered to their users, our ability to grow our business will be impaired.
A portion of our business model depends upon the continued demand for mobile advertising on connected devices, as well as the major operating systems that run on them and the number of applications that are downloaded onto them.
The design of mobile devices and operating systems is controlled by third parties, upon whom we do not have any influence. These parties frequently introduce new devices, and from time-to-time they may introduce new operating systems or modify existing ones. Network carriers may also affect the ability of users to download applications or access specified content on mobile devices.
In some cases, the parties that control the development of mobile connected devices and operating systems include companies that we regard as our competitors. For example, Google controls the Android™ platform operating system. If our mobile software platform were unable to work on these operating systems, either because of technological constraints or because the developer of these operating systems wishes to impair our ability to provide ads on the operating system, our ability to generate revenue could be significantly harmed.
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If we fail to deliver our products and services ahead of the commercial launch of new mobile handset models, our sales may suffer.
Our business is dependent, in part, on the commercial sale of smartphone handsets. We do not control the timing of these handset launches. Some new handsets are sold by carriers with certain of our products and applications pre-loaded, and many end users who use our services do so after they purchase their new handsets to experience the new features of those handsets. Some of our products require handset manufacturers give us access to their handsets prior to commercial release. If one or more major handset manufacturers were to cease to provide us access to new handset models prior to commercial release, we might be unable to introduce compatible versions of our products and services for those handsets in coordination with their commercial release, and we might not be able to make compatible versions for a substantial period following their commercial release. If, because of launch delays, we miss the opportunity to sell products and services when new handsets are shipped or our end users upgrade to a new handset, or if we miss the key holiday selling period, either because the introduction of a new handset is delayed or we do not deploy our products and services in time for seasonal increases in handset sales, our revenues would likely decline and our business, operating results and financial condition would likely suffer.
We may be unable to develop and introduce in a timely way new products or services, and our products and services may have defects, which could harm our brand.
The planned timing and introduction of new products and services are subject to risks and uncertainties. Unexpected technical, operational, deployment, distribution or other problems could delay or prevent the introduction of new products and services, which could result in a loss of, or delay in, revenues or damage to our reputation and brand. If any of our products or services is introduced with defects, errors or failures, we could experience decreased sales, loss of end users, damage to our carrier relationships, damage to our advertiser and application developer relationships, and damage to our reputation and brand. In addition, new products and services may not achieve sufficient market acceptance to offset the costs of development, particularly when the introduction of a product or service is substantially later than a planned “day-and-date” launch, which could materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
If we fail to maintain and enhance our capabilities for our offerings to a broad array of mobile operating systems, our attractiveness to wireless carriers, equipment manufacturers, advertisers, and application developers will be impaired and our sales could suffer.
Changes to our design and development processes to address new features or functions of mobile operating systems or networks might cause inefficiencies that might result in more labor-intensive software integration processes. In addition, we anticipate that in the future we will be required to update existing and new products and applications to a broader array of mobile operating systems. If we utilize more labor intensive processes, our margins could be significantly reduced and it might take us longer to integrate our products and applications to additional mobile operating systems. This, in turn, could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
A majority of our revenues are currently being derived from a limited number of wireless carriers, advertisers, and application developers. If any one of these customers were to terminate their agreement with us or if they were unable to fulfill their payment obligations, our financial condition and results of operations would suffer.
If any of our primary customers were to terminate their commercial relationship with us or if they are unable to fulfill their payment obligations to us under our agreements with them, our revenues could decline significantly and our financial condition will be harmed.
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We may be subject to legal liability associated with providing mobile and online services.
We provide a variety of products and services that enable carriers, manufacturers, application developers, advertisers, and users to engage in various mobile and online activities both domestically and internationally. The law relating to the liability of providers of these mobile and online services and products for such activities is still unsettled and constantly evolving in the U.S. and internationally. Claims have been threatened and have been brought against us in the past for breaches of contract, copyright or trademark infringement, tort or other theories based on the provision of these products and services. In addition, we are and have been and may again in the future be subject to domestic or international actions alleging that certain content we have generated or third-party content that we have made available within our services violates laws in domestic and international jurisdictions. We may be subject to claims concerning these products, services, or content by virtue of our involvement in marketing, branding, broadcasting, or providing access to them, even if we do not ourselves host, operate, provide, own, or license these products, services, or content. While we routinely insert indemnification provisions into our contracts with these parties, such indemnities to us, when obtainable, may not cover all damages and losses suffered by us and our customers from covered products and services. In addition, recorded reserves and/or insurance coverage may be exceeded by unexpected results from such claims which directly impacts profits. Defending such actions could be costly and involve significant time and attention of our management and other resources, may result in monetary liabilities or penalties, and may require us to change our business in an adverse manner.
Our business is dependent on our ability to maintain and scale our infrastructure, including our employees and third parties, and any significant disruption in our service could damage our reputation, result in a potential loss of customers, and adversely affect our financial results.
Our reputation and ability to attract, retain, and serve customers is dependent upon the reliable performance of our products and services and the underlying infrastructure, both internal and from third-party providers. Our systems may not be adequately designed with the necessary reliability and redundancy to avoid performance delays or outages that could be harmful to our business. If our products and services are unavailable, or if they do not load as quickly as expected, customers may not use our products as often in the future, or at all. If our customer base grows, we will need an increasing amount of infrastructure, including network capacity, to continue to satisfy the needs of our customers. It is possible that we may fail to effectively scale and grow our infrastructure to accommodate these increased demands. In addition, our business may be subject to interruptions, delays, or failures resulting from earthquakes, adverse weather conditions, other natural disasters, power loss, terrorism, ineffective business execution, epidemics, pandemics, or other catastrophic events.
A substantial portion of our network infrastructure is provided by third parties. Any disruption or failure in the services we receive from these providers could harm our ability to handle existing or increased traffic and could significantly harm our business. Any financial or other difficulties these providers face may adversely affect our business, and we exercise little control over these providers, which increases our vulnerability to problems with the services they provide.
Our products, services, and systems rely on software that is highly technical, and if it contains undetected errors, our business could be adversely affected.
Our products, services and systems rely on software, including software developed or maintained internally and/or by third parties, that is highly technical and complex. In addition, our products, services and systems depend on the ability of such software to transfer, store, retrieve, process, and manage large amounts of data. The software on which we rely has contained, and may now or in the future contain, undetected errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities. Some errors may only be discovered after the code has been released for external or internal use. Errors or other design defects within the software on which we rely may result in a negative experience for customers and marketers who use our products, delay product introductions or enhancements, result in measurement or billing errors, or compromise our ability to protect the data of our users and/or our intellectual property. Any errors, bugs, or defects discovered in the software on which we rely could result in damage to our reputation, loss of users, loss of revenue, or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
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We rely upon third-party data centers and providers of cloud-based infrastructure to host our platform. Any disruption in the operations of these third-party providers, limitations on capacity, or interference with our use could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We currently serve our customers from data centers in the United States and other locations worldwide, which are operated by a third-party cloud hosting provider. We use various third-party cloud hosting providers, such as Amazon Web Services (“AWS”), to provide cloud infrastructure for our platform. Our platform relies on the operations of this infrastructure. Customers need to be able to access, send requests and receive communication from our platform at any time, without interruption or degradation of performance. In addition, our platform depends on the ability of these data centers and cloud infrastructure to allow for our customers’ configuration, architecture, features and interconnection specifications and to secure the information stored in these data centers. Any limitation on the capacity of our data centers or cloud infrastructure could impede our ability to onboard new customers or expand the usage of our existing customers, host our platform or serve our customers, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any incident affecting our data centers or cloud infrastructure that may be caused by cyber-attacks, natural disasters, fire, flood, severe storm, earthquake, power loss, outbreaks of contagious diseases, telecommunications failures, terrorist or other attacks and other similar events beyond our control could negatively affect the cloud-based portion of our platform. A prolonged service disruption affecting our data centers or cloud-based services for any of the foregoing reasons would negatively impact our ability to serve our customers and could damage our reputation with current and potential customers, expose us to liability, cause us to lose customers or incur additional costs under our customer and partner agreements or otherwise harm our business. We may also incur significant costs for using alternative providers or taking other actions in preparation for, or in response to, events that damage the third-party hosting services we use.
In the event that our service agreements relating to our data centers or cloud infrastructure are terminated or there is a lapse of service, elimination of services or features that we utilize, interruption of internet service provider connectivity or damage to such facilities, we could experience interruptions in access to our platform, loss of revenue from revenue-share and usage-based solutions, as well as significant delays and additional expense in arranging or creating new facilities and services or re-architecting our platform for deployment on a different data center provider or cloud infrastructure service provider, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Company’s business is highly dependent on decisions and developments in the mobile device industry over which the Company has no control.
The Company’s ability to maintain and grow its business will be impaired if mobile connected devices, mobile operating systems, networks, standards and content distribution channels, which are run by operating system providers and app stores including those controlled by the primary competitors of the Company, develop in ways that prevent the Company’s products and services from being delivered to their users.
The Company’s business model will depend upon the continued compatibility of its mobile advertising platform with most mobile connected devices, as well as the major operating systems that run on them and the thousands of apps that are downloaded onto them.
The design of mobile devices and operating systems is controlled by third parties. These parties frequently introduce new devices, and from time to time they may introduce new operating systems or modify existing ones. Network carriers, such as Verizon, AT&T, Sprint, as well as other domestic and global operators, as well as OEMs, such as Samsung, may also affect the ability of users to download apps or access specified content on mobile devices. The Company also has some relationships with various other mobile carriers with relationships that are specific and subject to contractual performance which may not be achieved.
In some cases, the parties that control the development of mobile connected devices and operating systems include companies that the Company would regard as its most significant competitors. For example, Apple controls two of the most popular mobile devices, the iPhone® and the iPad®, as well as the iOS operating system that runs on them. Apple also controls the App Store for downloading apps that run on Apple® mobile devices. Similarly, Google controls the Google Play and Android™ platform operating system. If the Company’s mobile advertising platform were unable to work on these devices or operating systems, either because of technological constraints or because a maker of these devices or developer of these operating systems wished to impair the Company’s ability to place or provide ads on them or its ability to fulfill advertising space, or inventory, from developers whose apps are distributed through their controlled channels, the Company’s ability to maintain and grow its business will be impaired, and the Company’s results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected, perhaps materially.
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The parties that control these operating systems frequently introduce new technology, and from time to time, they may introduce new operating systems or modify existing ones. Further, the Company and its customers are also subject to the policies, practices, guidelines, certifications and terms of service of such parties’ platforms on which we and our customers create, run and monetize applications and content. These policies, guidelines and terms of service govern the promotion, distribution, content and operation generally of applications and content available through such parties. The parties that control the operating systems have broad discretion to change and interpret their terms of service, guidelines and policies, and those changes may have an adverse effect on us or our customers’ ability to use our products and services. A party that controls the operating system may also change its fee structure, add fees associated with access to and use of its platform or app store, alter how customers are able to advertise and monetize on their platform, change how the personal or other information of its users is made available to application developers on their platform, limit the use of personal information and other data for advertising purposes or restrict how users can share information on their platform or across other platforms. If we or our customers were to violate a party’s terms of service, guidelines, certifications or policies, or if a party were to believe that such a violation occurred, then that party could limit or discontinue our or our customers’ access to its platform or app store. If our platform was unable to work effectively on these operating systems, this would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Parties that control operating systems, such as Apple or Google, could also change their technical requirements, guidelines or policies in a manner that materially and adversely impacts the way in which we or our customers collect, use and share data from user devices, including restricting our ability to use or read device identifiers, other tracking features or other device data. Our ability to provide our customers with our user growth and monetization solutions relies on access to and collection of certain data, including resettable device identifiers and interactions with advertisements served by our monetization solutions for purposes such as serving advertisements, limiting the number of advertisements served to a specific device, detecting and preventing advertisement fraud, creating reports for customers, providing support to customers and measuring the effectiveness of advertisements. Without such data, we may not be able to serve such advertisements effectively, provide our products and services to customers, improve our products and services and remain competitive. There also is the risk that a party that controls an operating system could limit or discontinue our access to its platform or app store if it establishes more favorable relationships with one or more of our competitors or it determines that it is in their business interests to do so, and we would have no recourse against any such party, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If any parties that control operating systems, including either Android or iOS, stop providing us with access to their platform or infrastructure, fail to provide reliable access, cease operations, modify or introduce new systems or otherwise terminate services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to other operating systems could be time consuming and costly and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any limitation on or discontinuation of us or our customers’ access to any mobile operating system platform or app store could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or otherwise require us to change the way we conduct business.
The Company’s business may depend in part on its ability to collect and use location-based information about mobile connected device users.
The Company’s business model will depend in part upon its ability to collect data about the location of mobile connected device users when they are interacting with their devices, and then to use that information to provide effective targeted advertising on behalf of its advertising clients. The Company’s ability to either collect or use location-based data could be restricted by a number of factors, including new laws or regulations, technology or consumer choice. Limitations on its ability to either collect or use location data could impact the effectiveness of the Company’s platform and its ability to target ads.
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The Company does not have long-term agreements with its advertiser clients, and it may be unable to retain key clients, attract new clients, or replace departing clients with clients that can provide comparable revenue to the Company.
An important component of the Company’s future success is to retain and expand our relationships with existing customers and attract new customers. In order for the Company to maintain or improve our results of operations, it is important that the Company maintain positive relationships with existing customers and that they are satisfied with the products and services we provide. Our customer retention rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, some of which may be outside our control, such as the performance and perceived value associated with our products and services, including their perception of our continued development of products and services that are important to them, the business strength or weakness of our customers, the success of our customers’ apps and their ability to monetize, the entry and success of competitive products and overall general economic conditions in the geographic regions in which we operate. However, our efforts may not be successful despite the resources we devote to them, and our customers may choose to switch to one of our competitors or choose to replace our products with similar technology that the customer creates internally.
The Company’s contracts with its advertiser clients do not generally include long-term obligations requiring them to purchase the Company’s services and are cancelable upon short or no notice and without penalty. As a result, the Company may have limited visibility as to its future advertising revenue streams. The Company will not be able to provide assurance that its advertiser clients will continue to use its services or that it will be able to replace, in a timely or effective manner, departing clients with new clients that generate comparable revenue. If a major advertising client representing a significant portion of the Company’s business decides to materially reduce its use of the Company’s platform or to cease using the Company’s platform altogether, it is possible that the Company may not have a sufficient supply of ads to fill its developers’ advertising inventory, in which case the Company’s revenue could be significantly reduced. Revenue derived from performance advertisers in particular is subject to fluctuation and competitive pressures. Such advertisers, which seek to drive app downloads, are less consistent with respect to their spending volume, and may decide to substantially increase or decrease their use of the Company’s platform based on seasonality or popularity of a particular application.
Advertisers in general may shift their business to a competitor’s platform because of new or more compelling offerings, strategic relationships, technological developments, pricing and other financial considerations, or a variety of other reasons. Any non-renewal, renegotiation, cancellation or deferral of large advertising contracts, or a number of contracts that in the aggregate account for a significant amount of revenue, could cause an immediate and significant decline in the Company’s revenue and harm its business.
The Company’s business practices with respect to data could give rise to liabilities or reputational harm as a result of governmental regulation, legal requirements, or industry standards relating to consumer privacy and data protection.
In the course of providing its services, the Company will transmit and store information related to mobile devices and the ads it places, which may include a device’s geographic location for the purpose of delivering targeted location-based ads to the user of the device, with that user’s consent. Federal, state and international laws and regulations govern the collection, use, retention, sharing and security of data that the Company will collect across its mobile advertising platform. The Company will strive to comply with all applicable laws, regulations, policies and legal obligations relating to privacy and data protection. However, it is possible that these requirements may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or its practices. Any failure, or perceived failure, by it to comply with U.S. federal, state, or international laws, including laws and regulations regulating privacy, data security, or consumer protection, could result in proceedings or actions against the Company by governmental entities or others. Any such proceedings could hurt the Company’s reputation, force it to spend significant amounts in defense of these proceedings, distract its management, increase its costs of doing business, adversely affect the demand for its services and ultimately result in the imposition of monetary liability. The Company may also be contractually liable to indemnify and hold harmless its clients from the costs or consequences of inadvertent or unauthorized disclosure of data that it stores or handles as part of providing its services.
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The regulatory framework for privacy issues worldwide is evolving, and various government and consumer agencies and public advocacy groups have called for new regulation and changes in industry practices, including some directed at the mobile industry in particular. For example, in early 2012, the State of California entered into an agreement with several major mobile application platforms under which the platforms have agreed to require mobile applications to meet specified standards to ensure consumer privacy. Subsequently, in January 2013, the State of California released a series of recommendations for privacy best practices for the mobile industry. In January 2014, a California law also became effective amending the required disclosures for online privacy policies. In addition, the state of California has enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, a privacy and cyber security law, which establishes strict data protection and privacy controls and reporting requirements and increases liabilities for non-compliance. In addition, other jurisdictions, including other states, have enacted, or may enact, their own privacy and cyber security laws. Any such laws may impact our operations and the California legislation underscores the increasing risk profile of our business to both cyber events and the emerging, strict, regulatory framework governing all businesses dealing in personal data. It is possible that new laws and regulations will be adopted in the United States and internationally, or existing laws and regulations may be interpreted in new ways, that would affect the Company’s business, particularly with regard to location-based services, collection or use of data to target ads, and communication with consumers via mobile devices.
The U.S. government, including the Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, and the Department of Commerce, is focused on the need for greater regulation of the collection of consumer information, including regulation aimed at restricting some targeted advertising practices. In December 2012, the FTC adopted revisions to the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, or COPPA, that went into effect on July 1, 2013. COPPA imposes a number of obligations on operators of websites and online services including mobile applications, such as obtaining parental consent, if the operator collects specified information from users and either the site or service is directed to children under 13 years old or the site or service knows that a specific user is a child under 13 years old. The changes broaden the applicability of COPPA, including the types of information that are subject to these regulations, and may apply to information that the Company will collect through mobile devices or apps that, prior to the adoption of these new regulations, was not subject to COPPA. These revisions will impose new compliance burdens on the Company. In February 2013, the FTC issued a staff report containing recommendations for best practices with respect to consumer privacy for the mobile industry. To the extent that the Company or its clients choose to adopt these recommendations, or other regulatory or industry requirements become applicable to the Company, it may have greater compliance burdens.
As the Company expands its operations globally, compliance with regulations that differ from country to country also imposes substantial burdens on its business. In particular, the European Union (EU) has adopted a comprehensive overhaul of its data protection regime from the current national legislative approach to a single European Economic Area Privacy Regulation, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which became effective in 2018. The EU data protection regime extends the scope of the EU data protection law to all foreign companies processing data of EU residents. It imposes a strict data protection compliance regime with severe penalties of up to the greater of 4% of worldwide turnover and €20 million and includes new rights such as the “portability” of personal data. Although the GDPR will apply across the EU without a need for local implementing legislation, as has been the case under the current data protection regime, local data protection authorities (DPAs) will still have the ability to interpret the GDPR, which has the potential to create inconsistencies on a country-by-country basis. Complying with any new regulatory requirements could force us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner that could compromise our ability to effectively pursue our growth strategy.
The Company’s business may involve the use, transmission, and storage of confidential information, and the failure to properly safeguard such information could result in significant reputational harm and monetary damages.
The Company may at times collect, store and transmit information of, or on behalf of, its clients that may include certain types of confidential information that may be considered personal or sensitive, and that are subject to laws that apply to data breaches. The Company intends to take reasonable steps to protect the security, integrity and confidentiality of the information it collects and stores, but there is no guarantee that inadvertent or unauthorized disclosure will not occur or that third parties will not gain unauthorized access to this information despite the Company’s efforts to protect this information. If such unauthorized disclosure or access does occur, the Company may be required to notify persons whose information was disclosed or accessed. Most states have enacted data breach notification laws and, in addition to federal laws that apply to certain types of information, such as financial information, federal legislation has been proposed that would establish broader federal obligations with respect to data breaches. The Company may also be subject to claims of breach of contract for such disclosure, investigation and penalties by regulatory authorities and potential claims by persons whose information was disclosed. The unauthorized disclosure of information may result in the termination of one or more of its commercial relationships or a reduction in client confidence and usage of its services. The Company may also be subject to litigation alleging the improper use, transmission or storage of confidential information, which could damage its reputation among its current and potential clients, require significant expenditures of capital and other resources and cause it to lose business and revenue.
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System failures could significantly disrupt the Company’s operations and cause it to lose advertiser clients or advertising inventory.
The Company’s success will depend on the continuing and uninterrupted performance of its own internal systems, which the Company will utilize to bid and place ads, deliver applications and ads, monitor the performance of advertising campaigns and manage its inventory of advertising space. Its revenue will depend on the technological ability of its platforms to deliver applications and ads. Sustained or repeated system failures that interrupt its ability to provide services to clients, including technological failures affecting its ability to deliver applications and ads quickly and accurately and to process mobile device users’ responses to applications and ads, could significantly reduce the attractiveness of its services to advertisers and reduce its revenue. The combined systems are vulnerable to damage from a variety of sources, including telecommunications failures, power outages, malicious human acts and natural disasters. In addition, any steps the Company takes to increase the reliability and redundancy of its systems may be expensive and may not ultimately be successful in preventing system failures.
System security risks, data protection breaches, cyber-attacks, and systems integration issues could disrupt our internal operations or information technology services provided to customers, and any such disruption could reduce our expected revenue, increase our expenses, damage our reputation, and adversely affect our stock price.
Experienced computer programmers and hackers may be able to penetrate our network security and misappropriate or compromise our confidential information or that of third-parties, create system disruptions or cause shutdowns. Computer programmers and hackers also may be able to develop and deploy viruses, worms, and other malicious software programs that attack our products or otherwise exploit any security vulnerabilities of our products. In addition, sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we produce or procure from third-parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including ‘‘bugs’’ and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of the system. The costs to us to eliminate or alleviate cyber or other security problems, bugs, viruses, worms, malicious software programs and security vulnerabilities could be significant, and our efforts to address these problems may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays, cessation of service and loss of existing or potential customers that may impede our sales or other critical functions. We manage and store various proprietary information and sensitive or confidential data relating to our business. Breaches of our security measures or the accidental loss, inadvertent disclosure or unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data about us, our clients or customers, including the potential loss or disclosure of such information or data as a result of fraud, trickery or other forms of deception, could expose us, our customers or the individuals affected to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, result in litigation and potential liability for us, damage our brand and reputation or otherwise harm our business. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of implementing further data protection measures could be significant. Portions of our IT infrastructure also may experience interruptions, delays or cessations of service or produce errors in connection with systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time. We may not be successful in implementing new systems and transitioning data, which could cause business disruptions and be more expensive, time-consuming, disruptive and resource intensive. Such disruptions could adversely impact our ability to provide services and interrupt other processes. Delayed sales, lower margins, increased cost, or lost customers resulting from these disruptions could reduce our expected revenue, increase our expenses, damage our reputation and adversely affect our stock price.
If our goodwill becomes impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings.
We test goodwill for impairment at least annually or sooner if an indicator of impairment is present. If such goodwill is deemed impaired, an impairment loss would be recognized. We may be required to record a significant charge in our financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill is determined, which would negatively affect our results of operations.
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Public health issues, such as a major epidemic or pandemic, could adversely affect our business or financial results.
The U.S. and other countries have experienced, and may experience in the future, outbreaks of contagious diseases that affect public health and public perception of health risk. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) emerged and subsequently spread worldwide. The World Health Organization has declared COVID-19 a pandemic, resulting in foreign, federal, state, and local governments and private entities mandating various restrictions requiring closure of non-essential businesses and recommending people remain at home. Our results of operations are affected by economic conditions, including macroeconomic conditions, levels of business confidence, and consumer confidence. There is significant uncertainty regarding the extent to which and how long COVID-19 will disrupt the U.S. economy, consumer confidence, and the demand for our service offerings. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak and the impact on carriers, OEMs, customers, and employees, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, which could include reductions in sales of smartphones, tablets, and other devices or reductions in discretionary spending by customers or disruptions in employee or Company performance. If COVID-19 has a significant negative impact on economic conditions over a prolonged period of time, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted. We are conducting business as usual, with some modifications to employee travel, employee work locations, and cancellation of certain marketing events, among other modifications. We have observed other companies taking precautionary and preemptive actions to address COVID-19 and companies may take further actions that alter their normal business operations. We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions that alter our business operations, as may be required by foreign, federal, state, or local authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers, and stockholders.
Changes to current accounting principles could have a significant effect on the Company’s reported financial results or the way in which it conducts its business.
We prepare our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC” or the “Commission”) and various other bodies formed to interpret, recommend, and announce appropriate accounting principles, policies, and practices. A change in these principles could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and related financial disclosures, and may even retroactively affect the accounting for previously reported transactions. Our accounting policies that recently have been or may in the future be affected by changes in the accounting principles are as follows:
business consolidations;
revenue recognition;
leases;
stock-based compensation; and
accounting for goodwill and other intangible assets.
Changes in these or other rules may have a significant adverse effect on our reported financial results, disclosures, or in the way in which we conduct our business. See the discussion in “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” set forth in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Annual Report, for additional information about our accounting policies and estimates and associated risks.
Advertising Risks
Our revenues may fluctuate significantly based on mobile device sell-through, over which we have no control.
A significant portion of our revenue is impacted by the level of sell-through of mobile devices on which our software is installed. Demand for mobile devices sold by carriers and OEMs varies materially by device, and if our software is installed on devices for which demand is lower than our expectations -- a factor over which we have no control as we do not market mobile devices -- our revenues will be impacted negatively, and this impact may be significant. As our software is deployed on a diversified universe of devices, this risk will be somewhat mitigated, as the relative performance of one device over another device will have less impact on us, but until we achieve diversification in our device installations, we will continue to be subject to revenue fluctuations based on device sell-through, and such fluctuations can be material. Further, it is difficult to predict the level of demand for a particular device, making our revenue projections correspondingly difficult. These issues can be ameliorated as we gain more significant carrier and OEM relationships and conversely these issues can be exacerbated with, as presently, a limited number of such relationships.
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Activities of the Company’s advertiser clients could damage the Company’s reputation or give rise to legal claims against it.
The Company’s advertiser clients’ promotion of their products and services may not comply with foreign, federal, state and local laws, including, but not limited to, laws and regulations relating to mobile communications. Failure of its clients to comply with federal, state or local laws or its policies could damage its reputation and expose it to liability under these laws. The Company may also be liable to third parties for content in the ads it delivers if the artwork, text or other content involved violates copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property rights of third parties or if the content is defamatory, unfair and deceptive, or otherwise in violation of applicable laws. Although the Company will generally receive assurance from its advertisers that their ads are lawful and that they have the right to use any copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property included in an ad, and although it will normally be indemnified by the advertisers, a third-party or regulatory authority may still file a claim against the Company. Any such claims could be costly and time-consuming to defend and could also hurt the Company’s reputation. Further, if it is exposed to legal liability as a result of the activities of its advertiser clients, the Company could be required to pay substantial fines or penalties, redesign its business methods, discontinue some of its services or otherwise expend significant resources.
Loss or reduction of business from the Company’s large advertiser clients could have a significant impact on the Company’s revenues, results of operations, and overall financial condition.
A significant portion of our revenue is impacted by the level of advertising spend. If advertising spend is lower than our expectations -- a factor over which we have no control as we do not determine our customers' advertising budgets -- our revenues will be impacted negatively, and this impact may be significant.
From time-to-time, a limited number of the Company’s advertiser clients will be expected to account for a significant share of its advertising revenue. This customer concentration increases the risk of quarterly fluctuations in the Company’s revenues and operating results. The Company’s advertiser clients may reduce or terminate their business with it at any time for any reason, including changes in their financial condition or other business circumstances. If a large advertising client representing a substantial portion of its business decided to materially reduce or discontinue its use of its platform, it could cause an immediate and significant decline in its revenue and negatively affect its results of operations and financial condition.
The Company’s customer concentration also increases the concentration of its accounts receivable and its exposure to payment defaults by key customers. The Company will generate significant accounts receivable for the services that it provides to its key advertiser clients, which could expose it to substantial and potentially unrecoverable costs if it does not receive payment from them.
Mobile applications and advertising are relatively new, as are our products, which are evolving, and growth in revenues from those areas is uncertain and changes in the industry may negatively affect our revenue and financial results.
While we anticipate that mobile usage will continue to be the primary driver of revenues related to applications and advertising for the foreseeable future, there could be changes in the industry of mobile carriers and OEMs that could have a negative impact on these growth prospects for our business and our financial performance. Additionally, advertising cost per install (“CPI”) revenue realized could be negatively impacted by end user application “open-rates”. The open-rates realized on advertising campaigns in the marketplace today could vary compared to the open-rates realized for applications distributed via our products. Reduced open-rates could have a negative impact on the success of our products and our potential revenues earned from CPI. The mobile advertising market remains a new and evolving market and if we are unable to grow revenues or successfully monetize our customer and potential customer relationships, or if we incur excessive expenses in these efforts, our financial performance and ability to grow revenue would be negatively affected.
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Our growth and monetization on mobile devices depend upon effective operation with mobile operating systems, networks, and standards that we do not control as we are largely an Android-based technology provider.
There is no guarantee that mobile carriers and devices will use our products and services rather than competing products. We are dependent on the interoperability of our products and services with popular mobile operating systems that we do not control, such as Android, and any changes in such systems and terms of service that degrade our products’ functionality, reduce or eliminate our ability to distribute applications, give preferential treatment to competitive products, limit our ability to target or measure the effectiveness of applications, or impose fees or other charges related to our delivery of applications could adversely affect our monetization on mobile devices. Currently, our product offerings are primarily compatible with Android only, and would require developmental modifications to support other operating platforms. Additionally, in order to deliver high quality user experience, it is important that our products and services work well with a range of mobile technologies, systems, networks, and standards that we do not control. We may not be successful in developing relationships with key participants in the mobile industry or in developing products that operate effectively with these technologies, systems, networks, or standards. In the event that our relationships with network operators, mobile operating systems or other business partners deteriorate, our growth and monetization could be adversely affected and our business could be harmed.
We currently rely on wireless carriers and OEMs to distribute our products and services and thus to generate much of our revenues. The loss of or a change in any of these significant carrier relationships could cause us to lose access to their subscribers and thus materially reduce our revenues.
The future success of our business is highly dependent upon maintaining successful relationships with the wireless carriers and OEMs with which we currently work and establishing new carrier and OEM relationships in geographies where we have not yet established a significant presence. A significant portion of our revenue is derived from a very limited number of carriers. We expect that we will continue to generate a substantial portion of our revenues, on a go-forward basis, through relationships with a limited number of carriers for the foreseeable future. Our failure to maintain our relationships with these carriers, establish relationships with new carriers, or a loss or change of terms would materially reduce our revenues and thus harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
We have both exclusive and non-exclusive carrier and OEM agreements. Historically, our carrier and OEM agreements have had terms of one or two years with automatic renewal provisions upon expiration of the initial term, absent a contrary notice from either party, but going forward terms in carrier and OEM agreements may vary. In addition, some carrier and OEM agreements provide that the parties can terminate the agreement early and, in some instances, at any time without cause, which could give them the ability to renegotiate economic or other terms. The agreements generally do not obligate the carriers and OEMs to market or distribute any of our products or services. In many of these agreements, we warrant that our products do not violate community standards, do not contain libelous content, do not contain material defects or viruses, and do not violate third-party intellectual property rights and we indemnify the carrier for any breach of a third-party’s intellectual property.
Many other factors outside our control could impair our ability to generate revenues through a given carrier or OEM, including the following:
the carrier or OEM's preference for our competitors’ products and services rather than ours;
the carrier or OEM's decision not to include or highlight our products and services on the deck of its mobile handsets;
the carrier or OEM's decision to discontinue the sale of some or all of products and services;
the carrier’s decision to offer similar products and services to its subscribers without charge or at reduced prices;
a failure of the carrier or OEM's merchandising, provisioning or billing systems;
the carrier or OEM's decision to offer its own competing products and services;
the carrier or OEM's decision to transition to different platforms and revenue models; and
consolidation among carriers or OEMs.
If any of our carriers or OEMs decides not to market or distribute our products and services or decides to terminate, not renew or modify the terms of its agreement with us or if there is consolidation among carriers generally, we may be unable to replace the affected agreement with acceptable alternatives, causing us to lose access to that carrier’s subscribers and the revenues they afford us, which could materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
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The mobile advertising business is an intensely competitive industry and we may not be able to compete successfully.
The mobile advertising market is highly competitive, with numerous companies providing mobile advertising services. The Company’s mobile advertising platform will compete primarily with Facebook, Twitter, Snap, and Google, all of which are significantly larger than us and have far more capital to invest in their mobile advertising businesses. The Company will also compete with in-house solutions used by companies who choose to coordinate mobile advertising across their own properties. They, or other companies that offer competing mobile advertising solutions, may establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with their mobile operator partners, application developers or other parties, thereby limiting the Company’s ability to promote its services and generate revenue. Competitors could also seek to gain market share from us by reducing the prices they charge to advertisers or by introducing new technology tools for developers. Moreover, increased competition for mobile advertising space from developers could result in an increase in the portion of advertiser revenue that we must pay to developers to acquire that advertising space. The Company’s business will suffer to the extent that its developers and advertisers purchase and sell mobile advertising directly from each other or through other companies that are able to become intermediaries between developers and advertisers. For example, companies may have substantial existing platforms for developers who had previously not heavily used those platforms for mobile advertising campaigns. These companies could compete with us to the extent they expand into mobile advertising. Other companies, such as large application developers with a substantial mobile advertising business, may decide to directly monetize some or all of their advertising space without utilizing the Company’s services. Other companies that offer analytics, mediation, exchange or other third-party services may also become intermediaries between mobile advertisers and developers and thereby compete with us. Any of these developments would make it more difficult for the Company to sell its services and could result in increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses or the loss of market share.
The mobile advertising market may develop more slowly than expected, which could harm the business of the Company.
Advertisers have historically spent a smaller portion of their advertising budgets on mobile media as compared to traditional advertising methods, such as television, newspapers, radio and billboards, or online advertising over the internet, such as placing banner ads on websites. Future demand and market acceptance for mobile advertising is uncertain. Many advertisers still have limited experience with mobile advertising and may continue to devote larger portions of their advertising budgets to more traditional offline or online personal computer-based advertising, instead of shifting additional advertising resources to mobile advertising. If the market for mobile advertising deteriorates, or develops more slowly than we expect, the Company may not be able to increase its revenue.
The Company does not control the mobile networks over which it provides its advertising services.
The Company’s mobile advertising platform is dependent on the reliability of network operators and carriers who maintain sophisticated and complex mobile networks, as well as its ability to deliver content on those networks at prices that enable it to realize a profit. Mobile networks have been subject to rapid growth and technological change, particularly in recent years. The Company does not control these networks.
Mobile networks could fail for a variety of reasons, including new technology incompatibility, the degradation of network performance under the strain of too many mobile consumers using the network, a general failure from natural disaster or a political or regulatory shut-down. Individuals and groups who develop and deploy viruses, worms and other malicious software programs could also attack mobile networks and the devices that run on those networks. Any actual or perceived security threat to mobile devices or any mobile network could lead existing and potential device users to reduce or refrain from mobile usage or reduce or refrain from responding to the services offered by the Company’s advertising clients. If the network of a mobile operator should fail for any reason, the Company would not be able to effectively provide its services to its clients through that mobile network. This, in turn, could hurt the Company’s reputation and cause it to lose significant revenue.
Mobile carriers may also increase restrictions on the amounts or types of data that can be transmitted over their networks. The Company anticipates generating different amounts of revenue from its advertiser clients based on the content the Company delivers. In most cases, the Company will be paid by advertisers on a CPI basis, when an install of an advertised application occurs. Different types of advertising content consume differing amounts of bandwidth and network capacity. If a network carrier were to restrict the amounts of data that can be delivered on that carrier’s network, or otherwise control the kinds of content that may be downloaded to a device that operates on the network, it could negatively affect the Company’s pricing practices and inhibit its ability to deliver targeted advertising to that carrier’s users, both of which could impair the Company’s ability to generate revenue. Mobile connected device users may choose not to allow advertising on their devices.
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The success of the Company’s advertising business model will depend on its ability to deliver targeted, highly relevant ads to consumers on their mobile connected devices. Targeted advertising is done primarily through analysis of data, much of which is collected on the basis of user-provided permissions. This data might include a device’s location or data collected when device users view an ad or video or when they click on or otherwise engage with an ad. Users may elect not to allow data sharing for targeted advertising for a number of reasons, such as privacy concerns, or pricing mechanisms that may charge the user based upon the amount or types of data consumed on the device. Users may also elect to opt out of receiving targeted advertising from the Company’s platform. In addition, the designers of mobile device operating systems are increasingly promoting features that allow device users to disable some of the functionality, which may impair or disable the delivery of ads on their devices, and device manufacturers may include these features as part of their standard device specifications. Although we are not aware of any such products that are widely used in the market today, as has occurred in the online advertising industry, companies may develop products that enable users to prevent ads from appearing on their mobile device screens. If any of these developments were to occur, the Company’s ability to deliver effective advertising campaigns on behalf of its advertiser clients would suffer, which could hurt its ability to generate revenue and become profitable.
The Company may not be able to enhance its mobile advertising platform to keep pace with technological and market developments.
The market for mobile advertising services is characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards and frequent new service introductions. To keep pace with technological developments, satisfy increasing advertiser and developer requirements, maintain the attractiveness and competitiveness of the Company’s mobile advertising solutions and ensure compatibility with evolving industry standards and protocols, the Company will need to regularly enhance its current services and to develop and introduce new services on a timely basis. If the Company’s platform is not attractive to its customers or is not able to compete with alternative mobile advertising solutions, the Company will not have access to as much advertising inventory and may experience increased pressure on margins.
In addition, advances in technology that allow developers to generate revenue from their apps without assistance from the Company could harm its relationships with developers and diminish its available advertising inventory within their apps. Similarly, technological developments that allow third parties to better mediate the delivery of ads between advertisers and developers by introducing an intermediate layer between the Company and its developers could impair its relationships with those developers. The Company’s inability, for technological, business or other reasons, to enhance, develop, introduce and deliver compelling mobile advertising services in response to changing market conditions and technologies or evolving expectations of advertisers or mobile device users could hurt its ability to grow its business and could result in its mobile advertising platform becoming obsolete.
The Company will depend on publishers, developers and distribution partners for mobile advertising space to deliver its advertiser clients’ advertising campaigns, and any decline in the supply of advertising inventory could hurt its business.
The Company will depend on publishers, developers and distribution partners to provide it with space within their applications, which we refer to as “advertising inventory,” on which the Company will deliver ads. We anticipate that a significant portion of the Company’s revenue will derive from the advertising inventory provided by a limited number of publishers, developers and distribution partners. The Company will have minimum or fixed commitments for advertising inventory with some but not all of its publishers, developers and distribution partners, including certain wireless carriers in the United States and internationally. The Company intends to expand the number of publishers, developers and distribution partners subject to minimum or fixed arrangements. Outside of those relationships however, the publishers, developers and distribution partners that will sell their advertising inventory to the Company are not required to provide any minimum amounts of advertising space to the Company, nor are they contractually bound to provide the Company with a consistent supply of advertising inventory. Such publishers, developers and distribution partners can change the amount of inventory they make available to the Company at any time. They may also change the price at which they offer inventory to the Company, or they may elect to make advertising space available to its competitors who offer ads to them on more favorable economic terms. In addition, publishers, developers and distribution partners may place significant restrictions on the Company’s use of their advertising inventory. These restrictions may prohibit ads from specific advertisers or specific industries, or they could restrict the use of specified creative content or format. They may also use a fee-based or subscription-based business model to generate revenue from their content, in lieu of or to reduce their reliance on ads.
If publishers, developers and distribution partners decide not to make advertising inventory available to the Company for any of these reasons, decide to increase the price of inventory, or place significant restrictions on the Company’s use of their advertising space, the Company may not be able to replace this with inventory from others that satisfy the Company’s requirements in a timely and cost-effective manner. If this happens, the Company’s revenue could decline or its cost of acquiring inventory could increase.
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The Company’s advertising business depends on its ability to collect and use data to deliver applications, and any limitation on the collection and use of this data could significantly diminish the value of the Company’s services and cause it to lose clients and revenue.
When the Company delivers an application to a mobile device, it will often be able to collect anonymous information about the interaction of the mobile device user with the application, such as whether the user opened the application. As the Company collects and aggregates this data provided by billions of ad impressions, it intends to analyze it in order to optimize the placement and scheduling of applications across the advertising inventory provided to it by developers. For example, the Company may use the collected information to provide an application to only certain types of mobile devices, or to provide a report to an advertiser client on the number of its applications that were engaged.
Although the data the Company will collect is not personally identifiable information, its clients might decide not to allow it to collect some or all of this data or might limit its use of this data. For example, application developers may not agree to provide the Company with the data generated by interactions with the content on their applications, or device users may not consent to having information about their device usage provided to the developer. Any limitation on the Company’s ability to collect data about user behavior and interaction with mobile device content could make it more difficult for the Company to deliver effective mobile advertising programs that meet the demands of its advertiser clients.
Although the Company’s contracts with advertisers will generally permit it to aggregate data from advertising campaigns, these clients might nonetheless request that the Company discontinue using data obtained from their campaigns that have already been aggregated with other clients’ campaign data. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to comply with these requests, and responding to these kinds of requests could also cause the Company to spend significant amounts of resources. Interruptions, failures or defects in its data collection, mining, analysis and storage systems, as well as privacy concerns and regulatory restrictions regarding the collection of data, could also limit its ability to aggregate and analyze mobile device user data from its clients’ advertising campaigns. If that happens, the Company may not be able to optimize the placement of advertising for the benefit of its advertiser clients, which could make its services less valuable, and, as a result, it may lose clients and its revenue may decline.
The Company’s business depends on its ability to maintain the quality of its advertiser content.
The Company must be able to ensure that applications that are placed on devices are not unlawful or inappropriate. If the Company is unable to ensure that the quality of its advertiser content does not decline as the number of advertisers it works with continues to grow, then the Company’s reputation and business may suffer.
Risks Related to Our Market
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive, and many of our competitors have significantly greater resources than we do.
The distribution of applications, mobile advertising, development, distribution and sale of mobile products and services is a highly competitive business. We compete for advertisers primarily on the basis of positioning, performance, brand, quality and price. We compete for wireless carriers placement based on these factors, as well as historical performance, technical know-how, perception of sales potential and relationships with advertisers and other intellectual property. We compete for platform deployment contracts among other mobile platform companies. We also compete for experienced and talented employees.
Our primary competition for application and content distribution comes from the traditional application store businesses of Apple and Google, existing operator solutions built internally, as well as companies providing app install products and services as offered by Facebook, Twitter, Snap, Yahoo, and other ad networks such such as: IronSource, WPP, Omnicom, Criteo, QuinStreet, InMobi, Cheetah Mobile, Baidu, Tremor International, Magnite, Brightcove, Applovin, and others. These companies can be both customers for Digital Turbine products, as well as competitors in certain cases. With our platform, we see some smaller competitors, such as IronSource, Wild Tangent, and Sweet Labs, but the more material competition is internally developed operator solutions and specific mobile application management solutions built in-house by OEMs and wireless operators. Some of our existing wireless operators could make a strategic decision to develop their own solutions rather than continue to use our products.
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Some of our competitors’ and our potential competitors’ advantages over us, either globally or in particular geographic markets, include the following:
significantly greater revenues and financial resources;
stronger brand and consumer recognition regionally or worldwide;
the capacity to leverage their marketing expenditures across a broader portfolio of mobile and non-mobile products;
more substantial intellectual property of their own from which they can develop products and services without having to pay royalties;
pre-existing relationships with brand owners, advertisers, application developers, or carriers that afford them access to intellectual property while blocking the access of competitors to that same intellectual property;
greater resources to make acquisitions;
lower labor and development costs; and
broader global distribution and presence.
If we are unable to compete effectively or we are not as successful as our competitors in our target markets, our sales could decline (or inhibit generation of sales), our margins could decline and we could lose market share (or fail to penetrate the market), any of which would materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
End user tastes are continually changing and are often unpredictable. If we fail to develop and publish new products and services that achieve market acceptance, our sales would suffer.
Our business depends in part on deploying new products and services through wireless carriers and OEMs that end users buy. We must continue to invest significant resources in licensing efforts, product development, and regional expansion to enhance our offering of new products and services, and we must make decisions about these matters well in advance of product release in order to implement them in a timely manner. Our success depends, in part, on unpredictable and volatile factors beyond our control, including end-user preferences, competing products and services, and the availability of other entertainment activities. If our products and services are not responsive to the requirements of our advertisers, carriers or the entertainment preferences of end users, or are not brought to market in a timely and effective manner, our business, operating results, and financial condition would be harmed. Even if our products and services are successfully introduced, marketed effectively, and initially adopted, a subsequent shift in our advertisers, carriers, the entertainment, shopping, and mobile preferences of end users, or our relationship with third-party billing aggregators could cause a decline in the popularity of, or access to, our offerings and could materially reduce our revenues and harm our business, operating results, and financial condition.
We rely on the current state of the law in certain territories where we operate our business and any adverse change in such laws may significantly adversely impact our revenues and, consequently, our operating results and financial condition.
Decisions that regulators or governing bodies make with regard to the provision and marketing of mobile applications, content and/or billing can have a significant impact on the revenues generated in that market. Although most of our markets are mature with regulation clearly defined and implemented, there remains the potential for regulatory changes that would have adverse consequences on the business and subsequently our revenue.
We rely on our current understanding of regional regulatory requirements pertaining to the marketing, advertising, and promotion of our products and services, and any adverse change in such regulations, or a finding that we did not properly understand such regulations, may significantly impact our ability to market, advertise, and promote our products and services and thereby adversely impact our revenues, our operating results, and our financial condition.
Some portions of our business rely extensively on marketing, advertising and promoting our products and services requiring it to have an understanding of the local laws and regulations governing our business. Additionally, we rely on the policies and procedures of wireless carriers and should those change, there could be an adverse impact on our products. In the event that we have relied on inaccurate information or advice, and engage in marketing, advertising or promotional activities that are not permitted, we may be subject to penalties, restricted from engaging in further activities or altogether prohibited from offering our products and services in a particular territory, all or any of which will adversely impact our revenues and thus our operating results and financial condition.
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The strategic direction of the Company's businesses is developing and not completely proven or certain.
The business model that the Company is pursuing, mobile advertising and application installations, is in development and not completely proven. There are many different types of models including, but not limited to, set-up fees, CPI, CPP, CPA, up-front fees (including licensing), revenue shares, per device license fees, as well as hybrids of each. Initial feedback from customers shows preference for different types of models. This could lead to risk in predicting future revenues and profits by individual customers. In particular, the ‘free’ download market is reliant upon mobile advertising, and the mobile advertising market is still in a nascent phase of monetization.
In addition, our strategy for the Company entails offering its platform to existing and new customers. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully market new services and offerings to existing and new customers. Moreover, in order to credibly offer our platform, we will need to achieve additional operational and technical achievements to further develop the product offering. Our platform is compatible with Android, and should the market shift to a different operating system there would need to be modifications to our products to adapt to such a change. While we remain optimistic about our ability to complete this change and build out, it will be subject to all of the risks attendant to these development efforts as well as the need to provide additional capital to the effort.
Risks Relating to Our Industry
Wireless communications technologies are changing rapidly, and we may not be successful in working with these new technologies.
Wireless network and mobile handset technologies are undergoing rapid innovation. New handsets with more advanced processors and advanced programming languages continue to be introduced. In addition, networks that enable enhanced features are being developed and deployed. We have no control over the demand for, or success of, these products or technologies. If we fail to anticipate and adapt to these and other technological changes, the available channels for our products and services may be limited and our market share and operating results may suffer. Our future success will depend on our ability to adapt to rapidly changing technologies and develop products and services to accommodate evolving industry standards with improved performance and reliability. In addition, the widespread adoption of networking or telecommunications technologies or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures to modify or adapt our products and services.
Technology changes in the wireless industry require us to anticipate, sometimes years in advance, which technologies we must implement and take advantage of in order to make our products and services, and other mobile entertainment products, competitive in the market. Therefore, we usually start our product development with a range of technical development goals that we hope to be able to achieve. We may not be able to achieve these goals, or our competition may be able to achieve them more quickly and effectively than we can. In either case, our products and services may be technologically inferior to those of our competitors, less appealing to end users, or both. If we cannot achieve our technology goals within our original development schedule, then we may delay their release until these technology goals can be achieved, which may delay or reduce our revenues, increase our development expenses and harm our reputation. Alternatively, we may increase our product development resources in an attempt either to preserve our product launch schedule or to keep up with our competition. In either case, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially harmed.
The complexity of and incompatibilities among mobile handsets may require us to use additional resources for the development of our products and services.
To reach large numbers of wireless subscribers, application developers, and wireless carriers, we must support numerous mobile handsets and technologies. However, keeping pace with the rapid innovation of handset technologies together with the continuous introduction of new, and often incompatible, handset models by wireless carriers requires us to make continuous investments in product development and maintenance, including talent, technologies, and equipment. In the future, we may be required to make substantial investments in our development if the number of different types of handset models continues to proliferate. In addition, as more advanced handsets are introduced that enable more complex, feature-rich products and services, we anticipate that our product development and maintenance costs will increase, which could increase the risks associated with one or more of our products or services and could materially harm our operating results and financial condition.
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If wireless subscribers do not continue to use their mobile handsets to access mobile content and other applications, our business growth and future revenues may be adversely affected.
We operate in a developing industry. Our success depends on growth in the number of wireless subscribers who use their handsets to access data services we develop and distribute. New or different mobile content applications developed by our current or future competitors may be preferred by subscribers to our offerings. In addition, other mobile platforms may become widespread, and end users may choose to switch to these platforms. If the market for our products and services does not continue to grow or we are unable to acquire new end users, our business growth and future revenues could be adversely affected. If end users switch their entertainment spending away from the kinds of offerings that we publish, or switch to platforms or distribution where we do not have comparative strengths, our revenues would likely decline and our business, operating results and financial condition would suffer.
Our industry is subject to risks generally associated with advertising content delivery, any of which could significantly harm our operating results.
Our business is subject to risks that are generally associated with advertising content delivery, many of which are beyond our control. These risks could negatively impact our operating results and include: the popularity, price and timing of release of our offerings and mobile handsets on which they are accessed; economic conditions that adversely affect discretionary consumer spending; changes in consumer demographics; the availability and popularity of other forms of entertainment; and critical reviews and public tastes and preferences, which may change rapidly and cannot necessarily be predicted.
A shift of technology platform by wireless carriers and mobile handset manufacturers could lengthen the development period for our offerings, increase our costs, and cause our offerings to be of lower quality or to be published later than anticipated.
Mobile handsets require multimedia capabilities enabled by operating systems capable of running applications, products and services such as ours. Our development resources are concentrated in today’s most popular operating systems, and we have experience developing applications for these operating systems. Specifically, our products are currently compatible with the Android and iOS operating system. If this operating system falls out of favor with handset manufacturers and wireless carriers and there is a rapid shift to a new technology where we do not have development experience or resources, the development period for our products and services may be lengthened, increasing our costs, and the resulting products and services may be of lower quality, and may be published later than anticipated. In such an event, our reputation, business, operating results and financial condition might suffer.
System or network failures could reduce our sales, increase costs, or result in a loss of end users of our products and services.
Mobile application developers rely on wireless carriers’ networks to deliver products and services to end users and on their or other third parties’ billing systems to track and account for the delivery of such offerings. In addition, certain products require access over the mobile Internet to our servers or third-party servers in order to enable certain features. Any failure of, or technical problem with, carriers’, third parties’ or our billing systems, delivery systems, information systems or communications networks could result in the inability of end users to use our products, prevent the completion of a billing transaction, or interfere with access to some aspects of our products. If any of these systems fail or if there is an interruption in the supply of power, an earthquake, fire, flood, epidemic, pandemic, or other natural disaster, or an act of war or terrorism, end users might be unable to access our offerings. For example, from time to time, our carriers have experienced failures with their billing and delivery systems and communication networks, including gateway failures that reduced the provisioning capacity of their branded e-commerce system. Any failure of, or technical problem with, the carriers’, other third parties’ or our systems could cause us to lose end users or revenues or incur substantial repair costs and distract management from operating our business. This, in turn, could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
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Our business depends on the growth and maintenance of wireless communications infrastructure.
Our success will depend on the continued growth and maintenance of wireless communications infrastructure in the United States and internationally. This includes deployment and maintenance of reliable next-generation digital networks with the speed, data capacity and security necessary to provide reliable wireless communications services. Wireless communications infrastructure may be unable to support the demands placed on it if the number of subscribers continues to increase, or if existing or future subscribers increase their bandwidth requirements. Wireless communications have experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of infrastructure and equipment failures, and could face outages and delays in the future. These outages and delays could reduce the level of wireless communications usage as well as our ability to distribute our products and services successfully. In addition, changes by a wireless carrier to network infrastructure may interfere with downloads and may cause end users to lose functionality. This could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in mobile handsets or wireless networks could adversely affect our revenues.
Maintaining the security of mobile handsets and wireless networks is critical for our business. There are individuals and groups who develop and deploy viruses, worms and other illicit code or malicious software programs that may attack wireless networks and handsets. Security experts have identified computer “worm” programs that target handsets running on certain operating systems. Although these worms have not been widely released and do not present an immediate risk to our business, we believe future threats could lead some end users to seek to reduce or delay future purchases of our products or reduce or delay the use of their handsets. Wireless carriers and handset manufacturers may also increase their expenditures on protecting their wireless networks and mobile phone products from attack, which could delay adoption of new handset models. Any of these activities could adversely affect our revenues and this could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Changes in government regulation of the media and wireless communications industries may adversely affect our business.
A number of laws and regulations have been and likely will continue to be adopted in the United States and elsewhere that could restrict the media and wireless communications industries, including laws and regulations regarding customer privacy, taxation, content suitability, copyright, distribution and antitrust. Furthermore, the growth and development of the market for electronic commerce may prompt calls for more stringent consumer protection laws that may impose additional burdens on companies such as ours conducting business through wireless carriers. We anticipate that regulation of our industry will increase and that we will be required to devote legal and other resources to address this regulation. Changes in current laws or regulations or the imposition of new laws and regulations in the United States or elsewhere regarding the media and wireless communications industries may lessen the growth of wireless communications services and may materially reduce our ability to increase or maintain sales of our products and services.
A number of studies have examined the health effects of mobile phone use, and the results of some of the studies have been interpreted as evidence that mobile phone use causes adverse health effects. The establishment of a link between the use of mobile phone services and health problems, or any media reports suggesting such a link, could increase government regulation of, and reduce demand for, mobile phones and, accordingly, the demand for our products and services, and this could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Management, Employees, and Acquisitions
Our business and growth may suffer if we are unable to hire and retain key talent who are in high demand.
We depend on the continued contributions of our domestic and international senior management and other key talent. The loss of the services of any of our executive officers or other key employees could harm our business. Because not all of our executive officers and key employees are under employment agreements or are under agreements with short terms, their future employment with the Company is uncertain. Additionally, our workforce is comprised of a relatively small number of employees operating in different countries around the globe who support our existing and potential customers. Given the size and geographic dispersion of our workforce, we could experience challenges with execution as our business matures and expands.
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Our future success also depends on our ability to identify, attract, and retain highly skilled technical, managerial, financial, marketing, and creative talent. We face intense competition for qualified individuals from numerous technology, marketing, and mobile entertainment companies. Further, we conduct international operations in Germany, Israel, India, South America, Singapore, and Turkey, areas that, similarly to our headquarters region, have high costs of living and consequently high compensation standards and/or intense demand for qualified individuals, which may require us to incur significant costs to attract them. We may be unable to attract and retain suitably qualified individuals who are capable of meeting our growing creative, operational, and managerial requirements, or may be required to pay increased compensation in order to do so. If we are unable to attract and retain the qualified talent we need to succeed, our business would suffer.
Volatility or lack of performance in our stock price may also affect our ability to attract and retain our key employees. Some of our senior management and other key employees have become, or will soon become, vested in a substantial amount of stock or stock options. Employees may be more likely to leave us if the shares they own or the shares underlying their options have significantly appreciated in value relative to the original purchase prices of the shares or the exercise prices of the options, or if the exercise prices of the options they hold are significantly above the market price of our common stock. If we are unable to retain our employees, our business, operating results, and financial condition would be harmed.
We plan to continue to review opportunities and possibly make acquisitions, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, result in dilution to our stockholders, and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
As part of our business strategy, we have made and intend to continue to review opportunities and possibly make acquisitions to add specialized employees and complementary companies, products, technologies, or distribution channels. In some cases, these acquisitions may be substantial and our ability to acquire and integrate such companies in a successful manner will be challenging. We can give you no assurance that any such integration would be successful. The failure to successfully integrate an acquired business could disrupt operations and divert management’s attention, which could have an adverse effect on our business and operations.
Any acquisitions we announce could be viewed negatively by mobile network operators, users, customers, vendors, marketers, developers, or investors. In addition, we may not successfully evaluate, integrate, or utilize the products, technology, services, operations, or talent we acquire. The integration of acquisitions may require significant time and resources, and we may not manage these integrations successfully. In addition, we may discover liabilities or deficiencies that we did not identify in advance associated with the companies or assets we acquire. The effectiveness of our due diligence with respect to acquisitions, and our ability to evaluate the results of such due diligence, is dependent upon the accuracy and completeness of statements and disclosures made or actions taken by the companies we acquire or their representatives. We may also fail to accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges. In the future, we may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates, and we may not be able to complete acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all.
We may also incur substantial costs in making acquisitions. We may pay substantial amounts of cash or incur debt to pay for acquisitions, which could adversely affect our liquidity. The incurrence of indebtedness would also result in increased fixed obligations and interest expense, and could also include covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations. Additionally, we may issue equity securities to pay for acquisitions or to retain the employees of the acquired company, which could increase our expenses, adversely affect our financial results, and result in dilution to our stockholders. In addition, acquisitions may result in our recording of substantial goodwill and amortizable intangible assets on our balance sheet upon closing, which could adversely affect our future financial results and financial condition. These factors related to acquisitions may require significant management attention, disrupt our business, result in dilution to our stockholders, and adversely affect our financial results and financial condition.
The acquisition of other companies, businesses, or technologies could result in operating difficulties, dilution, and other harmful consequences.
We have made acquisitions and we may pursue further acquisitions, any of which could be material to our business, operating results and financial condition. Future acquisitions could divert management’s time and focus from operating our business, even in instances where acquisition negotiations are unsuccessful. In addition, integrating an acquired company, business or technology is risky and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. We may also raise additional capital for the acquisition of, or investment in, companies, technologies, products or assets that complement our business. Future acquisitions or dispositions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, including our common stock, or the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses or acquired in-process research and development expenses, any of which could harm our financial condition and operating results. Future acquisitions may also require us to obtain additional financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all.
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International acquisitions involve risks related to integration of operations across different cultures and languages, currency risks and the particular economic, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries.
In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our earnings based on this impairment assessment process, which could harm our operating results.
Also, to realize the anticipated benefits of an acquisition, the acquired business must be successfully integrated. The acquired business may not be successfully integrated for a variety of reasons. Failure to successfully integrate the acquired business could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits from the acquisition, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business, operations, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes to financial accounting standards could make it more expensive to issue stock options to employees, which would increase compensation costs and might cause us to change our business practices.
We prepare our financial statements to conform with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. These accounting principles are subject to interpretation by the FASB, the SEC, and various other bodies. A change in those principles could have a significant effect on our reported results and might affect our reporting of transactions completed before a change is announced. For example, we have used restricted stock and stock options grants as a fundamental component of our employee compensation packages. We believe that such grants directly motivate our employees to maximize long-term stockholder value and, through the use of vesting, encourage employees to remain in our employ. Several regulatory agencies and entities have made regulatory changes that could make it more difficult or expensive for us to grant stock options or restricted stock to employees. We may, as a result of these changes, incur increased compensation costs, change our equity compensation strategy or find it difficult to attract, retain and motivate employees, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Risks Related to the Economy in the United States and Globally
The effects of the past recession in the United States and general downturn in the global economy, including financial market disruptions, could have an adverse impact on our business, operating results, or financial condition.
Our operating results also may be affected by uncertain or changing economic conditions such as the challenges that are currently affecting economic conditions in the United States and the global economy. If global economic and market conditions, or economic conditions in the United States or other key markets, remain uncertain or persist, spread, or deteriorate further, we may experience material impacts on our business, operating results, and financial condition in a number of ways including negatively affecting our profitability and causing our stock price to decline.
Risks Related to Potential Liability, Our Intellectual Property, and Our Content
If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property rights, it may be possible for third parties to obtain and improperly use our intellectual property and our competitive position may be adversely affected.
Our intellectual property is an essential element of our business. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. To date, we have not obtained patent protection; however, applications have been submitted. Consequently, we may not be able to protect our technologies from independent invention by third parties.
We also seek to maintain certain intellectual property as trade secrets. The secrecy could be compromised by outside parties, or by our employees, which could cause us to lose the competitive advantage resulting from these trade secrets.
We also face risks associated with our trademarks. For example, there is a risk that our international trademark applications may be considered too generic or that the words “Digital” or “Turbine” could be separately or compositely trademarked by third parties with competitive products who may try and block our applications or sue us for trademark dilution which could have adverse effects on our financial status.
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Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or otherwise to obtain and use our intellectual property. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent infringement, piracy, and other unauthorized uses of our intellectual property, particularly internationally where the laws may not protect our intellectual property rights as fully as in the United States. In the future, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our management and resources.
In addition, although we require third parties to sign agreements not to disclose or improperly use our intellectual property, it may still be possible for third parties to obtain and improperly use our intellectual properties without our consent. This could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Third parties may sue us for intellectual property infringement, which, if successful, may disrupt our business and could require us to pay significant damage awards.
Third parties may sue us for intellectual property infringement or initiate proceedings to invalidate our intellectual property, either of which, if successful, could disrupt the conduct of our business, cause us to pay significant damage awards or require us to pay licensing fees. In the event of a successful claim against us, we might be enjoined from using our licensed intellectual property, we might incur significant licensing fees and we might be forced to develop alternative technologies. Our failure or inability to develop non-infringing technology or software or to license the infringed or similar technology or software on a timely basis could force us to withdraw products and services from the market or prevent us from introducing new products and services. In addition, even if we are able to license the infringed or similar technology or software, license fees could be substantial and the terms of these licenses could be burdensome, which might adversely affect our operating results. We might also incur substantial expenses in defending against third-party infringement claims, regardless of their merit. Successful infringement or licensing claims against us might result in substantial monetary liabilities and might materially disrupt the conduct of our business.
Our platform contains third-party open source software components, which may pose particular risks to our proprietary software, technologies, and solutions in a manner that could negatively affect our business.
Our platform contains software modules by third-party authors that are publicly available under “open source” licenses, and we expect to use open source software in the future. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. To the extent that our platform depends upon the successful operation of open source software, any undetected errors or defects in this open source software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our platform, delay introductions of new solutions, result in a failure of any of our solutions and injure our reputation. For example, undetected errors or defects in open source software could render it vulnerable to breaches or security attacks, and, in conjunction, make our systems more vulnerable to data breaches. In addition, the public availability of such software may make it easier for others to compromise our platform.
Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use, or grant other licenses to our intellectual property. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. While our open source polices are meant to prevent such misuse, there can be no assurance that such incidents would not occur. This would allow our competitors to create similar offerings with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of our competitive advantages. Alternatively, to avoid the public release of the affected portions of our source code, we could be required to expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software.
Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our platform to conditions we do not intend, there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to provide or distribute our solutions. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their products or platforms. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Moreover, we cannot assure you that our processes for controlling our use of open source software in our platform will be effective. If we are held to have breached or failed to fully comply with all the terms and conditions of an open source software license, we could face infringement or other liability, or be required to seek costly licenses from third parties to continue providing our solutions on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our solutions, to discontinue or delay the provision of our solutions if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Litigation may harm our business.
Substantial, complex or extended litigation could cause us to incur significant costs and distract our management. For example, lawsuits by employees, stockholders, collaborators, distributors, customers, vendors, competitors, end-users or others could be very costly and substantially disrupt our business. Disputes from time to time with such companies, organizations or individuals are not uncommon, and we cannot assure you that we will always be able to resolve such disputes or on terms favorable to us. Unexpected results could cause us to have financial exposure in these matters in excess of recorded reserves and insurance coverage, requiring us to provide additional reserves to address these liabilities, therefore impacting profits. Carriers or other customers have and may try to include us as defendants in suits brought against them by their own customers or third parties. In such cases, the risks and expenses would be similar to those where we are the party directly involved in the litigation.
Indemnity provisions in various agreements potentially expose us to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement, damages caused by malicious software, and other losses.
In the ordinary course of our business, most of our agreements with carriers, customers and other distributors include indemnification provisions. In these provisions, we agree to indemnify them for losses suffered or incurred in connection with our products and services, including as a result of intellectual property infringement and damages caused by viruses, worms and other malicious software. The term of these indemnity provisions is generally perpetual after execution of the corresponding license agreement, and the maximum potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under these indemnification provisions is generally unlimited. Large future indemnity payments could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our business in countries with a history of corruption and transactions with foreign governments, including with government-owned or controlled wireless carriers, increases the risks associated with our international activities.
As we operate and sell internationally, we are subject to certain economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations, export control and import laws and regulations, including those that are administered by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the United Nations Security Council and other relevant governmental authorities and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA, and other laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by the United States and other business entities for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We have operations, deal with carriers, and make sales in countries known to experience corruption, particularly certain emerging countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Asia. Further international expansion may involve more of these countries. Our activities in these countries create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by one of our employees, consultants, sales agents or distributors that could be in violation of various laws including the FCPA, even though these parties are not always subject to our control. We have attempted to implement safeguards to discourage these practices by our employees, consultants, sales agents and distributors. However, our existing safeguards and any future improvements may prove to be less than effective, and our employees, consultants, sales agents or distributors may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible. Violations of the FCPA may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could negatively affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Government regulation of our marketing methods could restrict our ability to adequately advertise and promote our content, products, and services available in certain jurisdictions.
The governments of some countries have sought to regulate the methods and manner in which certain of our products and services may be marketed to potential end-users. Regulation aimed at prohibiting, limiting or restricting various forms of advertising and promotion we use to market our products and services could also increase our cost of operations or preclude the ability to offer our products and services altogether. As a result, government regulation of our marketing efforts could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
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Risks Relating to Our Common Stock and Capital Structure
The Company has secured and unsecured indebtedness, which could limit its financial flexibility.
The Company’s outstanding secured indebtedness, and its ability to borrow under its $400.0 million revolving credit facility, could have significant negative consequences including:
increasing the Company’s vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limiting the Company’s ability to obtain additional financing;
violating a financial covenant, resulting in the indebtedness to be paid back immediately and thus negatively impacting our liquidity;
requiring additional financial covenant measurement consents or default waivers without enhanced financial performance in the short term;
requiring the use of a substantial portion of any cash flow from operations to service indebtedness, thereby reducing the amount of cash flow available for other purposes, including capital expenditures;
limiting the Company’s flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the Company’s business and the industry in which it competes, including by virtue of the requirement that the Company remain in compliance with certain negative operating covenants included in the credit arrangements under which the Company will be obligated as well as meeting certain reporting requirements; and
placing the Company at a possible competitive disadvantage to less leveraged competitors that are larger and may have better access to capital resources.
Our credit facility also contains a maximum consolidated secured net leverage ratio and minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio. There can be no assurance we will continue to satisfy these ratio covenants. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity and Capital Resources-Recent Developments” for a description of these ratio covenants. If we fail to satisfy these covenants, the lender may declare a default, which could lead to acceleration of the debt maturity. Any such default would have a material adverse effect on the Company.
The collateral pledged to secure our secured debt, consisting of substantially all of our and our U.S. subsidiaries’ assets, would be available to the secured creditor in a foreclosure, in addition to many other remedies. Accordingly, any adverse change in our ability to service our secured debt could result in an event of default, cross default and foreclosure or forced sale. Depending on the value of the assets, there could be little if any assets available for common stockholders in any foreclosure or forced sale.
To service our debt and fund our other capital requirements, we will require a significant amount of cash and our ability to generate cash will depend on many factors beyond our control.
On April 29, 2021, we borrowed approximately $107.0 million under our senior revolving credit facility, and on May 25, 2021, we borrowed an additional $130.0 million under our senior revolving credit facility to fund the cash closing payments for the AdColony and Fyber acquisitions. In addition, under the terms of the Share Purchase Agreement for the acquisition of AdColony, we are obligated to pay $100.0 million in cash on or before October 29, 2021 and an earn-out payment estimated between $150.0 million to $175.0 million in cash within 10 days after December 31, 2021. In addition, under the Sale and Purchase Agreement for the acquisition of Fyber, we must pay the tender offer consideration in cash and are obligated to make a potential earn-out payment of up to $50.0 million, which may be paid in shares of our common stock or, under certain circumstances, in cash.
Our ability to meet our debt service obligations and to fund working capital, capital expenditures, and investments in our business will depend upon our future performance, which will be subject to financial, business, and other factors affecting our operations, many of which are beyond our control, availability of borrowing capacity under our credit facility, and our ability to access the capital markets. For example, this could include general and regional economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory, and other factors. We cannot ensure that we will generate cash flow from operations, or that future borrowings or the capital markets will be available, in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our debt or to fund our other liquidity needs. We could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional indebtedness or equity capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to effect any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations.
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The market price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations, and you may be unable to resell your shares at or above the current price.
The market price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a number of factors that are beyond our control, including announcements of new products or services by our competitors. In addition, the market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors, including:
quarterly variations in our revenues and operating expenses;
developments in the financial markets, and the worldwide or regional economies;
announcements of innovations or new products or services by us or our competitors;
significant sales of our common stock or other securities in the open market; and
changes in accounting principles.
In the past, stockholders have often instituted securities class action litigation after periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities. If a stockholder were to file any such class action suit against us, we would incur substantial legal fees and our management’s attention and resources would be diverted from operating our business to respond to the litigation, which could harm our business.
If we fail to comply with the continued listing requirements of the NASDAQ Capital Market, our common stock may be delisted and the price of our common stock and our ability to access the capital markets could be negatively impacted.
Our common stock is listed for trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market (“NADSAQ”). A de-listing of our common stock from NADSAQ could materially reduce the liquidity of our common stock and result in a corresponding material reduction in the price of our common stock. In addition, de listing could harm our ability to raise capital through alternative financing sources on terms acceptable to us, or at all, and may result in the potential loss of confidence by investors, employees and fewer business development opportunities.
The sale of securities by us in any equity or debt financing, or the issuance of new shares related to an acquisition, could result in dilution to our existing stockholders and have a material adverse effect on our earnings.
Any sale or issuance of common stock by us in a future offering or acquisition could result in dilution to the existing stockholders as a direct result of our issuance of additional shares of our capital stock. In addition, our business strategy may include expansion through internal growth by acquiring complimentary businesses, acquiring or licensing additional brands, or establishing strategic relationships with targeted customers and suppliers. In order to do so, or to finance the cost of our other activities, we may issue additional equity securities that could dilute our stockholders’ stock ownership. We may also assume additional debt and incur impairment losses related to goodwill and other tangible assets if we acquire another company, and this could negatively impact our earnings and results of operations.
We may choose to raise additional capital to finance the purchase price of acquisitions or to otherwise accelerate the growth of our business, and we may not be able to raise capital to grow our business on terms acceptable to us or at all.
Should we choose to pursue alternatives to accelerate the growth or enhance our existing business, we may require significant cash outlays and commitments. If our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments balances and any cash generated from operations are not sufficient to meet our cash requirements, we may seek additional capital, potentially through debt or equity financings, to fund our growth. We may not be able to raise needed cash on terms acceptable to us or at all. Financings, if available, may be on terms that are dilutive or potentially dilutive to our stockholders, and the prices at which new investors would be willing to purchase our securities may be lower than the fair market value of our common stock. The holders of new securities may also receive rights, preferences or privileges that are senior to those of existing holders of our common stock.
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Future sales of our common stock in the public market could lower the market price of our common stock.
In the future, we may sell additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible into our common stock to raise capital. In addition, under the terms of the Share Purchase Agreement for the acquisition of AdColony, we must pay $100.0 million in cash on or before October 29, 2021 and an earn-out payment estimated between $150.0 million to $175.0 million in cash following December 31, 2021, and we may need to raise funds in the capital markets to fund such cash payment obligations. Also, under the terms of the Sale and Purchase Agreement for the acquisition of Fyber, we issued 3,216,935 newly-issued shares of our common stock equal in value to $235.0 million and will issue 2,599,653 newly-issued shares of our common stock equal in value to $165.0 million in June 2021, and may have to make an earn-out payment of up to $50.0 million in shares of our common stock or, under certain circumstances, cash. In addition, a substantial number of shares of our common stock is reserved for issuance upon the exercise of stock options, and the vesting of restricted stock units and restricted stock. We cannot predict the size of future issuances or the effect, if any, that they may have on the market price for our common stock. The issuance and sale of substantial amounts of common stock, or the perception that such issuances and sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they downgrade their recommendations regarding our common stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business or us. If any of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock, our common stock price would likely decline. If analysts cease coverage of the Company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our common stock price or trading volume to decline.
We do not anticipate paying dividends.
Our secured and unsecured indebtedness essentially prevents all payments of dividends to our stockholders. Even if such dividends were permitted by the applicable lenders, we have never paid cash or other dividends on our common stock. Payment of dividends on our common stock is within the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our earnings, our capital requirements and financial condition, and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. However, the earliest our Board of Directors would likely consider a dividend is if we begin to generate excess cash flow.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we might not be able to report our financial results accurately or prevent fraud. In that case, our stockholders could lose confidence in our financial reporting, which could negatively impact the price of our stock.
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. In addition, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, requires us to evaluate and report on our internal control over financial reporting. Management concluded that our internal controls over financial reporting were effective as of March 31, 2021; refer to Item 9A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information about management’s assessment of internal controls. We cannot be certain that measures taken by the Company will continue to ensure that we implement and maintain adequate controls over our financial processes and reporting in the future. Even if we are able to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting provides reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect fraud or misstatements. Failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. If we discover material weaknesses in our internal controls, the disclosure of that fact, even if quickly remedied, could reduce the market’s confidence in our financial statements and harm our stock price. In addition, if we fail to comply with the applicable portions of Section 404, we could be subject to a variety of civil and administrative sanctions and penalties, including ineligibility for short form resale registration, action by the SEC, and the inability of registered broker-dealers to make a market in our common stock.
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Maintaining and improving our financial controls and the requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention, and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified members for our Board of Directors.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Additionally, the time and effort required to maintain communications with stockholders and the public markets can be demanding on senior management, which can divert focus from operational and strategic efforts. The requirements of the public markets and the related regulatory requirements has resulted in an increase in our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, may make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly and may place undue strain on our talent, systems, and resources.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. This can be difficult to do. For example, we depend on the reports of wireless carriers for information regarding the amount of sales of our products and services and to determine the amount of royalties we owe branded content licensors and the amount of our revenues. These reports may not be timely, and in the past they have contained, and in the future they may contain, errors.
In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we expend significant resources and provide significant management oversight. We have a substantial effort ahead of us to implement appropriate processes, document our system of internal control over relevant processes, assess their design, remediate any deficiencies identified and test their operation. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. These efforts will also involve substantial accounting-related costs.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act makes it more difficult and more expensive for us to maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, and we may be required in the future to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to maintain coverage. If we are unable to maintain adequate directors’ and officers’ insurance, our ability to recruit and retain qualified directors, and officers will be significantly curtailed.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management, and limit the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include provisions that:
authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, shares of undesignated preferred stock with terms, rights, and preferences determined by our board of directors that may be senior to our common stock;
specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairperson of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, or our president, or holders of a majority of our outstanding common stock;
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;
prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors.
In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Any of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, and they could deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you would receive a premium for your shares of our common stock in an acquisition.
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Our bylaws designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for certain disputes between us and our stockholders.
Our bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers, or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law; and (iv) any action or proceeding asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law. These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees.
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
The principal offices of Digital Turbine, Inc. are located in Austin, Texas. The Company also leases properties in Durham, North Carolina and Arlington, Virginia through its wholly-owned subsidiaries DT Media and Mobile Posse, respectively, and internationally in Tel Aviv, Israel and Singapore through its wholly-owned subsidiaries DT EMEA, Appreciate, and DT Singapore, respectively.
ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information required by this Item 3 is incorporated herein by reference to the information set forth under the caption “Legal Matters” in Note "Commitments and Contingencies" of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
    Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “APPS.”
Holders
    As of June 8, 2021, there were 105 holders of record of our common stock. There were also an undetermined number of holders who hold their stock in nominee or “street” name.
Dividends
    We have not declared cash dividends on our common stock since our inception and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Further, any such dividends would be substantially restricted by our secured and unsecured indebtedness.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchaser
    There were no purchases of equity securities by us during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
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Recent Sale of Unregistered Securities
    None.
Performance Graph
    This performance graph shall not be deemed ‘‘soliciting material’’ or ‘‘filed’’ with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under Section 18, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of ours under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
    The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on an initial investment of $100 in our common stock between March 31, 2016 and March 31, 2021, with the comparative cumulative total return of such amount on (i) the NASDAQ Composite Index (IXIC) and (ii) the Russell 2000 Index (RUT) over the same period. We have not paid any cash dividends and, therefore, the cumulative total return calculation for us is based solely upon stock price appreciation (depreciation) and not upon reinvestment of cash dividends. The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock.
COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
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ITEM 6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following Selected Financial Data has been revised to reflect discontinued operations (see Note “Discontinued Operations” in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report).
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and our Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes included in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income / (Loss) data for each of the three years ended March 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 and the Consolidated Balance Sheets data as of March 31, 2021 and 2020 are derived from and qualified by reference to our audited consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income / (Loss) data for the two years ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 and the Consolidated Balance Sheets data as of March 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 are derived from our audited financial statements not included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period.
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For further information, see Part I, Item 1, "Business" under the heading "History of Digital Turbine, Inc." of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Results of Operations20212020201920182017
Net revenues (1)$313,579 $138,715 $103,569 $74,751 $40,207 
Income / (loss) from operations59,209 13,212 3,445 (5,809)(16,971)
Income / (loss) from continuing operations, net of taxes54,884 14,280 (4,302)(19,697)(19,138)
Basic net income / (loss) per common share from continuing operations$0.62 $0.17 $(0.06)$(0.28)$(0.29)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding from continuing operations, basic88,514 84,594 77,440 70,263 66,511 
Diluted net income / (loss) per common share from continuing operations$0.57 $0.16 $(0.06)$(0.28)$(0.29)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding from continuing operations, diluted96,151 89,558 77,440 70,263 66,511 
Balance Sheet Data20212020201920182017
Cash$30,778 $21,534 $10,894 $12,720 $6,149 
Working capital (2)(13,764)(24,362)713 (2,678)(7,109)
Total assets (3) (4)$260,369 $184,011 $82,861 $86,607 $107,580 
Long-term obligations4,108 23,748 8,195 12,529 14,761 
Total stockholders' equity$145,112 $77,454 $36,358 $27,672 $62,045 
(1) Net revenues presented under ASC 606 for fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019. Fiscal years 2018 and 2017 presented under ASC 605.
(2) Working capital number excludes assets and liabilities held for disposal on the balance sheet.
(3) Total assets include assets classified as held for disposal on the balance sheet as they were still owned by the Company at the balance sheet date.
(4) ROU assets under ASC 842 presented for fiscal years 2021 and 2020. Fiscal years 2019, 2018, and 2017 presented under ASC 840 (no ROU assets).
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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, the Financial Statements and the Notes thereto included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Report”). The following discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and the provisions of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. When used in this Report, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “will,” “seeks,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “may,” and similar expressions, as they relate to our management or us, are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. Our actual results, performance, or achievements could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, these forward-looking statements as a result of a variety of factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” in this Report, as well as those described elsewhere in this Report and in our other public filings. The risks included are not exhaustive and additional factors could adversely affect our business and financial performance. We operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for management to predict all such risk factors, nor can management assess the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Historical operating results are not necessarily indicative of the trends in operating results for any future period. We do not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Report. Accordingly, investors should use caution in relying on past forward-looking statements, which are based on known results and trends at the time they are made, to anticipate future results or trends. This Report and all subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.
Company Overview
Digital Turbine, Inc., through its subsidiaries, simplifies content discovery and delivers it directly to mobile devices. Its on-device media platform powers frictionless application and content discovery, user acquisition and engagement, operational efficiency, and monetization opportunities. Through March 31, 2021, Digital Turbine's technology platform has been adopted by over 35 mobile operators and device original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") and has delivered more than 5.3 billion application preloads for tens of thousands of advertising campaigns. The Company operates this business as one operating and reportable segment - Media Distribution, which was previously referred to as the operating segment O&O (which refers to operators and OEMs) and the reportable segment Advertising.
As the Company's suite of product offerings expands, both organically and through acquisitions, we believe that this renaming of our reporting and operating segment better reflects the way management views the business. There are no changes or historical differences to product offerings and financial information that were referred to as the Advertising segment in prior periods. While advertising, in general, remains a focus of our Media Distribution segment, we feel that this change in name more accurately conveys to the reader what we do for our customers and partners.
The Company's Media Distribution business consists of products and services that simplify the discovery and delivery of mobile applications and content media for consumers.
Application Media represents the portion of the business where our platform delivers apps to end users through partnerships with carrier networks and OEMs. Application Media optimizes revenues by using developed technology to streamline, track, and manage app install demand from hundreds of application developers across various publishers, carriers, OEMs, and devices.
Content Media represents the portion of the business where our platform presents news, weather, sports, and other content directly within the native device experience (e.g., as the start page in the mobile browser, a widget, on unlock, etc.) through partnerships with carrier networks and OEMs. Content Media optimizes revenue by a combination of:
Programmatic Ad Partner Revenue – advertising within the content media that’s sold on an ad exchange at a market rate (CPM - Cost Per Thousand);
Sponsored Content – sponsored content media from 3rd party content providers, presented similarly to an ad, that is monetized when a recommended story is viewed (CPC – Cost Per Click);
Editorial Content – owned or licensed media, presented similarly to an ad, that is monetized when the media is clicked on (CPC - Cost Per Click).
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With global headquarters in Austin, Texas and offices in Durham, North Carolina; San Francisco, California; Arlington, Virginia; São Paulo, Brazil; Mexico City, Mexico; Mumbai, India; Singapore; and Tel Aviv, Israel, Digital Turbine’s solutions are available worldwide. For additional information, please visit www.digitalturbine.com.
All dollar amounts are in thousands, except per share amounts.
Recent Acquisitions
The Company recently completed the below-described acquisitions of Appreciate, AdColony, and Fyber in order to help execute on its expressed strategy of becoming a leading end-to-end solution for mobile brand acquisition, advertising, and monetization.
Appreciate. On March 1, 2021, DT EMEA entered into a Share Purchase Agreement with Triapodi Ltd., an Israeli company (d/b/a Appreciate), the stockholder representative, and the stockholders of Appreciate pursuant to which DT EMEA acquired, on March 2, 2021, all of the outstanding capital stock of Appreciate in exchange for total consideration of $20,003 in cash. In connection with the acquisition, under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, DT EMEA entered into bonus arrangements to pay up to $6,000 in retention bonuses and performance bonuses to the founders and certain other employees of Appreciate. Appreciate is a programmatic mobile advertising demand-side platform ("DSP") company headquartered in Israel. Appreciate’s platform collaborates closely with mobile measurement partners (“MMPs”), exchanges, advertisers, and other partners to programmatically provide a transparent ecosystem designed to optimize user acquisition and ROI for the mobile advertisers utilizing its platform. Deploying Appreciate's technology expertise across Digital Turbine’s global scale and reach should further benefit partners and advertisers that are a part of the combined Company’s platform.
AdColony Holding AS. On April 29, 2021, DT Media completed the acquisition of AdColony Holding AS, a Norway company (“AdColony”), pursuant to a Share Purchase Agreement with AdColony and Otello Corporation ASA, a Norway company and the sole shareholder of AdColony (“Otello”). DT Media acquired all of the outstanding capital stock of AdColony in exchange for an estimated total consideration in the range of $350,000 to $375,000, to be paid as follows: (1) $100,000 in cash paid at closing (which was subject to customary closing purchase price adjustments), (2) $100,000 in cash to be paid six months after closing, and (3) an estimated earn-out in the range of $150,000 to $175,000, to be paid in cash, based on AdColony achieving certain future target net revenues, less associated cost of goods sold, over a twelve-month period ending on December 31, 2021 (the “Earn-Out Period”). Under the terms of the earn-out, DT Media would pay Otello a certain percentage of actual net revenues (less associated cost of goods sold) of AdColony depending on the extent to which AdColony achieves certain target net revenues (less associated cost of goods sold) over the Earn-Out Period. The earn-out payment will be made following the expiration of the Earn-Out Period. The Company paid the closing amount and intends to pay the remainder of the purchase price with a combination of available cash on hand and borrowings under its existing senior credit facility along with future capital financing. AdColony is a leading mobile advertising platform servicing advertisers and publishers with a reach of more than 1.5 billion monthly global users. AdColony’s proprietary video technologies and rich media formats are widely viewed as a best-in-class technology delivering third-party verified viewability rates for well-known global brands.
Fyber, N.V. On May 25, 2021, the Company and DT Media completed the initial closing of the acquisition of 523,553,108 shares, representing approximately 95.1% of the outstanding voting shares (the “Majority Fyber Shares”) of Fyber N.V., a public limited liability company registered with the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce Business Register (“Fyber”), pursuant to a Sale and Purchase Agreement between Tennor Holding B.V., Advert Finance B.V., and Lars Windhorst (collectively, the “Seller”), the Company, and DT Luxembourg. The Seller transferred and delivered 400,000,000 shares of the Majority Fyber Shares to DT Media on the closing date and will deliver the remaining 123,553,108 shares of the Majority Fyber Shares to DT Media in June 2021. The remaining approximately 4.9% of the shares in Fyber (the “Minority Fyber Shares”) are widely held by other shareholders of Fyber (the “Minority Fyber Shareholders”).
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DT Media acquired the Majority Fyber Shares in exchange for an estimated aggregate consideration of up to $600,000, consisting of (i) $150,000 in cash, which was subject to adjustments for certain items including the amount of cash consideration to be paid to the Minority Fyber Shareholders for the Minority Fyber Shares, paid at the closing of the acquisition, (ii) 3,216,935 newly issued shares of common stock of the Company equal in value to $235,000 (based on the volume-weighted average price of the common stock on NASDAQ during the 30-day period prior to the closing date), issued at the closing of the acquisition, (iii) 2,599,653 newly issued shares of common stock of the Company equal in value to $165,000 (based on the volume-weighted average price of the common stock on NASDAQ during the 30-day period prior to the closing date), to be issued in June 2021 after the receipt by the Company of a tax exemption certificate from the Israel Tax Authority, and (iv) contingent upon Fyber’s net revenues being equal or higher than $100,000 for the 12-month earn-out period ending on March 31, 2022, as determined in the manner set forth in the Sale and Purchase Agreement, a certain number of shares of Company common stock, which will be newly-issued to the Seller at the end of the earn-out period, and under certain circumstances, an amount of cash, which value of such shares and cash in aggregate will not exceed $50,000 (subject to set-off against certain potential indemnification claims against the Seller). The Company paid the cash closing amount on the closing date, and intends to pay the remainder of the cash consideration for the acquisition with a combination of available cash on hand, borrowings under the Company’s senior credit facility, and proceeds from future capital financings.
Fyber is a leading mobile advertising monetization platform empowering global app developers to optimize profitability through quality advertising. Fyber’s proprietary technology platform and expertise in mediation, real-time bidding, advanced analytics tools, and video combine to deliver publishers and advertisers a highly valuable app monetization solution.
Pursuant to certain German law on public takeovers, following the closing, the Company is obligated to make a public tender offer to the Minority Fyber Shareholders to acquire from them the Minority Fyber Shares. The tender offer will be subject to certain minimum price rules under German law. The timing and the conditions of the tender offer, including the consideration offered to the Minority Fyber Shareholders in connection with the tender offer, will be subsequently determined by the Company pursuant to the applicable Dutch and German takeover laws. The Company anticipates completing the tender offer during the second fiscal quarter 2022.
Other Recent Developments
February 2021 Credit Facility. On February 3, 2021, the Company entered into a credit agreement ("the BoA Credit Agreement') with Bank of America, N.A. (the “Bank”), which provides for a revolving line of credit of $100,000, with an accordion feature enabling the Company to increase the amount to up to $200,000, to be used for acquisitions, working capital, and general corporate purposes. DT Media and DT USA are additional co-borrowers under the BoA Credit Agreement.
The revolving line of credit matures on February 3, 2024.
In connection with the Company entering into the BoA Credit Agreement with the Bank as described above, on February 3, 2021, the Company and Western Alliance Bank terminated the Credit Agreement, dated February 28, 2020, by and among the Company, DT Media, DT USA, and Western Alliance Bank (and the amendments thereto), which was the previous term loan and revolving credit facility of the Company.
Amounts outstanding under the BoA Credit Agreement accrue interest at an annual rate equal to LIBOR (or, if necessary, a broadly-adopted replacement index) plus an applicable margin that ranges from 1.50% to 2.25%, depending on the Company’s consolidated leverage ratio. The obligations under the BoA Credit Agreement are secured by a grant of a security interest in substantially all of the assets of the Company and its subsidiaries. The BoA Credit Agreement contains customary covenants, representations, and events of default, and also requires the Company to comply with a maximum consolidated leverage ratio and minimum fixed charge coverage ratio.
At March 31, 2021, there was $15,000 outstanding principal on the BoA Credit Agreement and the Company had $85,000 available to draw.
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April 2021 Credit Facility. Subsequent to year end, on April 29, 2021, the Company entered into an amended and restated Credit Agreement (the “New Credit Agreement”) with Bank of America, N.A., as a lender and administrative agent, and a syndicate of lenders, which provides for a revolving line of credit of $400,000 to be used for working capital, permitted acquisitions, capital expenditures, and other lawful corporate purposes. DT Media and DT USA are additional co-borrowers under the Credit Agreement, and Mobile Posse is a guarantor (together with the Company, DT Media and DT USA, collectively, the “Loan Parties”). This modification replaced the existing BoA Credit Agreement. The New Credit Agreement contains an accordion feature that permits an increase of the revolver by up to $75,000 plus an amount that would enable the Loan Parties to remain in compliance with a consolidated secured net leverage ratio, on such terms as agreed to by the parties.
The revolving line of credit matures on April 29, 2026.
Amounts outstanding under the Credit Agreement accrue interest at an annual rate equal to, at the Company’s election, (i) LIBOR plus between 1.50% and 2.25% based on the Company’s consolidated leverage ratio or (ii) a base rate determined based upon the highest of (a) the federal funds rate plus 0.50%, (b) Bank of America, N.A.’s prime rate or (c) LIBOR plus 1.00%, plus between 0.50% and 1.25% based on the Company’s consolidated leverage ratio. The Credit Agreement contains customary covenants, representations and events of default, and also requires the Company to comply with a maximum consolidated secured net leverage ratio and minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio.
The Loan Parties’ payment and performance obligations under the New Credit Agreement and related loan documents are secured by their grant of a security interest in substantially all of their personal property assets, whether now existing or hereafter acquired, subject to certain exclusions. If the Loan Parties acquire any real property assets with a fair market value in excess of $5,000, they are required to grant a security interest in such real property as well. All such security interests are required to be first priority security interests, subject to certain permitted liens.
Media Distribution Business
The Company's Media Distribution business is an advertiser solution for unique and exclusive carrier and OEM inventory, which is comprised of first boot and recurring life-cycle products, features, and professional services delivered through our platform.
Our software platform enables mobile operators and OEMs to control, manage, and monetize devices through application installation at the time of activation and over the life of a device. The platform allows mobile operators to personalize the application activation experience for customers and monetize their home screens via revenue-share agreements such as: Cost-Per-Install (CPI), Cost-Per-Placement (CPP), and Cost-Per-Action (CPA) with third-party advertisers; or via Per-Device-License Fees (PDL) agreements, which allow operators and OEMs to leverage the platform, its products, and other features for a structured fee. Setup Wizard, Dynamic Installs, or Software Development Kit ("SDK") are the delivery methods available to operators and OEMs on first boot of the device. Additional products and features are available throughout the life-cycle of the device that provide operators and OEMs additional opportunity for media delivery revenue streams. The Company has launched its software with operators and OEMs in North America, Latin America, Europe, Israel, and Asia-Pacific.
The acquisition of Mobile Posse provides an additional platform option, outside of our core platform, to monetize user actions over the life-cycle of a device by delivering media-rich advertising content to the end user and providing operators and OEMs with an additional opportunity for revenue streams synergistic with our core platform.
The Company's Media Distribution business consists of products and services that simplify the discovery and delivery of mobile applications and content media for consumers.
Application Media represents the portion of the business where our platform delivers apps to end users through partnerships with carrier networks and OEMs. Application Media optimizes revenues by using developed technology to streamline, track, and manage app install demand from hundreds of application developers across various publishers, carriers, OEMs, and devices.
Content Media represents the portion of the business where our platform presents news, weather, sports, and other content directly within the native device experience (e.g., as the start page in the mobile browser, a widget, on unlock, etc.) through partnerships with carrier networks and OEMs. Content Media optimizes revenue by a combination of:
Programmatic Ad Partner Revenue – advertising within the content media that’s sold on an ad exchange at a market rate (CPM - Cost Per Thousand);
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Sponsored Content – sponsored content media from 3rd party content providers, presented similarly to an ad, that is monetized when a recommended story is viewed (CPC – Cost Per Click);
Editorial Content – owned or licensed media, presented similarly to an ad, that is monetized when the media is clicked on (CPC - Cost Per Click).
Impact of COVID-19 on the Business
Our results of operations are affected by economic conditions, including macroeconomic conditions, levels of business confidence, and consumer confidence. There is some uncertainty regarding the extent to which COVID-19 will impact our business and the demand for our service offerings. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our operational and financial performance will depend on the impact to carriers and OEMs in relation to their sales of smartphones, tablets, and other devices. If COVID-19 continues to have a significant negative impact on global economic conditions over a prolonged period of time, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted. Presently, we are conducting business as usual, with some modifications to employee travel, employee work locations, and cancellation of certain marketing events, among other modifications. We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions that alter our business operations, as required or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers, and stockholders.
Disposition of the Content Reportable Segment and A&P Business
On April 29, 2018, the Company entered into two distinct disposition agreements with respect to select assets owned by our subsidiaries.
DT APAC and DT Singapore (together, “Pay Seller”), each wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company, entered into an Asset Purchase Pay Agreement (the “Pay Agreement”), dated April 23, 2018, with Chargewave Ptd Ltd (“Pay Purchaser”) to sell certain assets (the “Pay Assets”) owned by the Pay Seller related to the Company’s Direct Carrier Billing business. The Pay Purchaser is principally owned and controlled by Jon Mooney, an officer of the Pay Seller. At the closing of the asset sale, Mr. Mooney was no longer employed by the Company or Pay Seller. As consideration for this asset sale, Digital Turbine is entitled to receive certain license fees, profit-sharing, and equity participation rights as outlined in the Company’s Form 8-K filed on May 1, 2018 with the SEC. The transaction was completed on July 1, 2018 with an effective date of July 1, 2018. With the sale of these assets, the Company exited the reporting segment of the business previously referred to as the Content business.
DT Media, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “A&P Agreement”), dated April 28, 2018, with Creative Clicks B.V. (the “A&P Purchaser”) to sell business relationships with various advertisers and publishers (the “A&P Assets”) related to the Company’s Advertising and Publishing business. As consideration for this asset sale, we are entitled to receive a percentage of the gross profit, as defined by the A&P Agreement, derived from these customer agreements for a period of three years, as outlined in the Company’s Form 8-K filed on May 1, 2018 with the SEC. The transaction was completed on June 28, 2018 with an effective date of June 1, 2018. With the sale of these assets, the Company exited the operating segment of the business previously referred to as the A&P business, which was previously part of the Advertising segment, the Company's sole reporting segment (which is now Media Distribution).
These dispositions have allowed the Company to benefit from a streamlined business model, simplified operating structure, and enhanced management focus.
Discontinued Operations
As a result of the dispositions, the results of operations from our Content reporting segment and A&P business within the Media Distribution reporting segment, previously referred to as the Advertising segment, are reported as “Loss from discontinued operations, net of taxes” and the related assets and liabilities are classified as “held for disposal" on the prior comparative period Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report. The Company has recast prior period amounts presented within this report to provide visibility and comparability.
Results of Operations
All discussions in this Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, unless otherwise noted, relate to the remaining continuing operations in our sole operating segment after the dispositions, the Media Distribution business.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Below are our revenues, costs of revenues, and expenses for fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019. This information should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto in Item 8 in this Annual Report.
 Year ended March 31,Year ended March 31,
20212020% of Change20202019% of Change
(in thousands, except per share amounts) (in thousands, except per share amounts) 
Net revenues$313,579 $138,715 126.1 %$138,715 $103,569 33.9 %
Total costs of revenues and operating expenses254,370 125,503 102.7 %125,503 100,124 25.3 %
Income from operations59,209 13,212 348.1 %13,212 3,445 283.5 %
Change in estimated contingent consideration(15,751)— (100.0)%— — — %
Interest income / (expense)(1,003)41 (2,546.3)%41 (1,120)103.7 %
Foreign exchange transaction gain— — — %— (100.0)%
Change in fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability— — — %— (1,008)100.0 %
Change in fair value of warrant liability— (9,580)100.0 %(9,580)(4,875)(96.5)%
Loss on extinguishment of debt(452)— (100.0)%— (431)100.0 %
Other income / (expense)(146)232 (162.9)%232 153 51.6 %
Income / (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes41,857 3,905 971.9 %3,905 (3,833)201.9 %
Income tax provision / (benefit)(13,027)(10,375)25.6 %(10,375)469 2,312.2 %
Income / (loss) from continuing operations, net of taxes$54,884 $14,280 284.3 %$14,280 $(4,302)431.9 %
Basic net income / (loss) per common share from continuing operations$0.62 $0.17 264.7 %$0.17 $(0.06)383.3 %
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic88,514 84,594 4.6 %84,594 77,440 9.2 %
Diluted net income / (loss) per common share from continuing operations$0.57 $0.16 256.3 %$0.16 $(0.06)366.7 %
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, diluted96,151 89,558 7.4 %89,558 77,440 15.6 %
Net revenues
Year ended March 31,Year ended March 31,
20212020% of Change20202019% of Change
(in thousands, except per share amounts)(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Net revenues
Application media$217,447 $133,898 62.4 %$133,898 $103,569 29.3 %
Content media$96,132 $4,817 1,895.7 %$4,817 $— 100.0 %
Total net revenues$313,579 $138,715 126.1 %$138,715 $103,569 33.9 %
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Fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020
During the year ended March 31, 2021, revenues increased $174,864, or 126.1%, compared to the prior year.
The Company's Media Distribution business is an advertiser solution for unique and exclusive carrier and OEM inventory. During the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Media Distribution business, primarily through silent application delivery, was the main driver of our revenues. Application Media revenue totaled $217,447 and $133,898, respectively, for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, while Content Media revenue, primarily related to the Mobile Posse acquisition on February 28, 2020, totaled $96,132 and $4,817, respectively. Our application delivery and management software enables operators and OEMs to control, manage, and monetize applications installed at the time of activation and over the life of a device. The increase in net revenues of $83,549 related to our Application Media business was attributable to increased demand for our core services, and expanded platform offerings, which led to higher CPI and CPP revenue per available placement. Of this increase in Application Media revenue, approximately $59,900 is related to increases in demand for our core services, and approximately $23,649 is related to new and expanded platform offerings. The increase in net revenues of $91,315 related to our Content Media business, primarily from the acquisition of Mobile Posse, is a function of a full year of contribution in the current fiscal year, as opposed to one month of contribution in the previous fiscal year, as well as post acquisition technology synergies driving expansion across the existing Digital Turbine partner base.
With respect to customer revenue concentration, the Company defines a customer as an advertiser or a carrier that is a distinct source of revenue and is legally bound to pay for the services that the Company delivers on the advertiser’s or carrier's behalf. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, no single customer represented more than 10% of net revenues. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, one major customer, Oath Inc., a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, represented 15.3% of net revenues.
    With respect to partner revenue concentration, the Company partners with mobile carriers and OEMs to deliver applications on our platform through the carrier network. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, T-Mobile US Inc., including Sprint and other subsidiaries, a carrier partner, generated 26.4%, AT&T Inc., including its Cricket subsidiary, a carrier partner, generated 22.3%, Verizon Wireless, a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, a carrier partner, generated 18.5%, and America Movil, primarily through its subsidiary Tracfone Wireless Inc., a carrier partner, generated 10.8% of our net revenues. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, Verizon Wireless, a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, a carrier partner, generated 37.3%, AT&T Inc., including its Cricket subsidiary, a carrier partner, generated 30.0%, and America Movil, primarily through its subsidiary Tracfone Wireless Inc., a carrier partner, generated 10.7% of our net revenues.
A reduction or delay in operating activity from these customers or partners, or a delay or default in payment by these customers, or a termination of the Company's agreements with these customers, could materially harm the Company’s business and prospects. The Company is not aware of any material changes to these relationships, or material reductions or delays in operating activity with these customers or partners.
Fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019
During the year ended March 31, 2020, revenues increased $35,146, or 33.9%, compared to the prior year.
The Company's Media Distribution business is an advertiser solution for unique and exclusive carrier and OEM inventory. During the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Media Distribution business, primarily through silent application delivery, was the main driver of our revenues. Our application delivery and management software enables operators and OEMs to control, manage, and monetize applications installed at the time of activation and over the life of a device. The increase in net revenues of $35,146 was primarily attributable to increased demand for our platform offerings, which led to higher CPI and CPP revenue per available placement. Of this increase, approximately $30,329 is related to organic increases in demand for our platform services, and approximately $4,817 is related to revenue contributions from the acquisition of Mobile Posse.
With respect to customer revenue concentration, during the year ended March 31, 2020, one major customer, Oath Inc., a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, represented 15.3% of net revenues. During the year ended March 31, 2019, one major customer, Oath Inc., a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, represented 28.6% of net revenues.
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With respect to partner revenue concentration, the Company partners with mobile carriers and OEMs to deliver applications on our platform through the carrier network. During the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, Verizon Wireless, a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, a carrier partner, generated 37.3% and 45.9%, respectively, while AT&T Inc., a carrier partner, including its Cricket subsidiary, generated 30.0% and 38.7%, respectively, of our net revenues. Additionally, during the year ended March 31, 2020, America Movil, primarily through its subsidiary Tracfone Wireless Inc., generated 10.7% of our net revenues.
Costs of revenues and operating expenses
Year ended March 31,Year ended March 31,
20212020% of Change20202019% of Change
(in thousands) (in thousands) 
License fees and revenue share$178,649 $83,588 113.7 %$83,588 $65,981 26.7 %
Other direct costs of revenues2,358 1,454 62.2 %1,454 2,023 (28.1)%
Product development20,119 12,018 67.4 %12,018 10,876 10.5 %
Sales and marketing19,304 11,244 71.7 %11,244 8,212 36.9 %
General and administrative33,940 17,199 97.3 %17,199 13,032 32.0 %
Total costs of revenues and operating expenses$254,370 $125,503 102.7 %$125,503 $100,124 25.3 %
Fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020
Total costs of revenues and operating expenses for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were approximately $254,370 and $125,503, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $128,867 or 102.7%. This change is a result of continued growth including the acquisitions of Mobile Posse and Appreciate. Company-wide cost control measures show the Company's ability to scale revenues at a greater rate than operating expenses.
License fees and revenue share is reflective of amounts paid to our carrier and OEM partners who drive the revenues generated from advertising via direct CPI, CPP, or CPA arrangements with application developers, or indirect arrangements through advertising aggregators (ad networks) are shared with the carrier and the shared revenue is recorded as a cost of revenue. In each case the revenue share with the carrier varies depending on the agreement with the carrier, and, in some cases, is based upon revenue tiers. License fees and revenue share for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were approximately $178,649 and $83,588, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $95,061 or 113.7%. The increase in these costs of revenues over the comparative period was primarily attributable to the increase in revenues over the same period, as these costs are paid as a percentage of revenues. License fees and revenue share, as a percent of revenue, for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were approximately 57% and 60%, respectively.
Other direct costs of revenues are comprised primarily of hosting expense directly related to the generation of revenues, and depreciation expense accounted for under ASC 985-20, Costs of Software to be Sold, Leased, or Otherwise Marketed. Other direct costs of revenues for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were approximately $2,358 and $1,454, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $904 or 62.2%.
Product development expenses include the development and maintenance of the Company's product suite. Expenses in this area are primarily a function of talent. Product development expenses for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were approximately $20,119 and $12,018, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $8,101 or 67.4%. The increase in product development expenses over the comparative period was primarily attributable to increased product development headcount, both organic and through the acquisitions of Mobile Posse and Appreciate, and other employee-related and third-party development-related costs as the Company continues to scale its product development organization to support the Company's growth.
Sales and marketing expenses represent the costs of sales and marketing talent, advertising and marketing campaigns, and campaign management. Sales and marketing expenses for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were approximately $19,304 and $11,244, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $8,060 or 71.7%. The increase in sales and marketing expenses over the comparative period was primarily attributable to the addition of new talent in existing markets related to the Company's continued expansion of its global footprint and increased commissions associated with the sales team generating more revenue through new and existing advertising relationships and markets.
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General and administrative expenses represent management, finance, and support talent costs in both the parent and subsidiary companies, which include professional and consulting costs, in addition to other costs such as rent, stock-based compensation, and depreciation expense. General and administrative expenses for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were approximately $33,940 and $17,199, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $16,741 or 97.3%. The increase over the comparative period is primarily attributable to employee-related expenses as a function of higher headcount, increased stock option expense, increases in depreciation and amortization related to capitalized internal-use software and intangible assets, and expenses incurred for the acquisitions of Mobile Posse and Appreciate.
Fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019
Total operating expenses for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were approximately $125,503 and $100,124, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $25,379 or 25.3%. This change is a result of continued growth including the acquisition of Mobile Posse. Company-wide cost control measures show the Company's ability to scale revenues at a greater rate than operating expenses.
License fees and revenue share is reflective of amounts paid to our carrier and OEM partners who drive the revenues generated from advertising via direct CPI, CPP, or CPA arrangements with application developers, or indirect arrangements through advertising aggregators (ad networks) are shared with the carrier and the shared revenue is recorded as a cost of revenue. In each case the revenue share with the carrier varies depending on the agreement with the carrier, and, in some cases, is based upon revenue tiers. License fees and revenue share for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were approximately $83,588 and $65,981, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $17,607 or 26.7%. The increase in these costs of revenues over the comparative period was primarily attributable to the increase in revenues over the same period, as these costs are paid as a percentage of revenues. License fees and revenue share, as a percent of revenue, for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were approximately 60% and 64%, respectively.
Other direct costs of revenues are comprised primarily of hosting expense directly related to the generation of revenues, and depreciation expense accounted for under ASC 985-20, Costs of Software to be Sold, Leased, or Otherwise Marketed. Other direct costs of revenues for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were approximately $1,454 and $2,023, respectively, representing a year-over-year decrease of approximately $569 or 28.1%.
Product development expenses for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were approximately $12,018 and $10,876, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $1,142 or 10.5%. The increase in costs over the comparative period is primarily a function of talent hired during fiscal year 2020 and hosting expenses associated with development activity.
Sales and marketing expenses for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were approximately $11,244 and $8,212, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $3,032 or 36.9%. The increase in sales and marketing expenses over the comparative period is primarily attributable to increased travel expenses for existing talent, the addition of new talent in existing markets related to the Company's continued expansion of its global footprint, and increased commissions associated with the sales team generating more revenue through new and existing advertising relationships and markets.
General and administrative expenses for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were approximately $17,199 and $13,032, respectively, representing a year-over-year increase of approximately $4,167 or 32.0%. The increase over the comparative period is primarily attributable to employee-related expenses as a function of higher headcount, increased stock option expense, increase in depreciation and amortization related to capitalized internal-use software, and expenses incurred for the acquisition of Mobile Posse.
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Interest and other income / (expense), net
Year ended March 31,Year ended March 31,
20212020% of Change20202019% of Change
(in thousands) (in thousands) 
Change in estimated contingent consideration$(15,751)$— (100.0)%$— $— — %
Interest income / (expense)(1,003)41 (2,546.3)%41 (1,120)103.7 %
Foreign exchange transaction gain— — — %— (100.0)%
Change in fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability— — — %— (1,008)100.0 %
Change in fair value of warrant liability— (9,580)100.0 %(9,580)(4,875)(96.5)%
Loss on extinguishment of debt(452)— (100.0)%— (431)100.0 %
Other income / (expense)(146)232 (162.9)%232 153 51.6 %
Total interest and other income / (expense), net$(17,352)$(9,307)86.4 %$(9,307)$(7,278)27.9 %
Fiscal 2021 compared to fiscal 2020
Total interest and other income / (expense), net, for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were $(17,352) and $(9,307), respectively, an increase in net expenses of $8,045 or 86.4%. This change in total interest and other income / (expense), net, was primarily attributable to changes in interest income / (expense), fair value of warrant liability, and estimated contingent consideration related to the Mobile Posse acquisition. The change in fair value of warrant liability was due to all holders of the remaining outstanding warrants exercising all outstanding warrants during the year ended March 31, 2020.
Fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019
Total interest and other income / (expense), net, for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 were $(9,307) and $(7,278), respectively, an increase in net expenses of $2,029 or 27.9%. This change in total interest and other income / (expense), net, was primarily attributable to changes in interest income / (expense), fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability, and fair value of warrant liability. The changes in fair values of the convertible note embedded derivative liability and warrant liability were due to the change in the Company's stock price from $3.50 at March 31, 2019 to $4.18 at March 31, 2020, partially offset by the settling of all of the remaining derivative instruments during the fiscal year.
Interest income / (expense)
In the year ended March 31, 2021, interest expense was attributable to 1) fees related to obtaining debt, which were recorded as debt issuance costs and expensed as a component of interest expense over the life of the debt; 2) interest expense incurred on the prior credit agreement with Western Alliance Bank, which was the previous senior credit facility of the Company that was terminated on February 3, 2021, at approximately 5.5% (LIBOR + 3.75% with a 1.75% LIBOR floor); and 3) interest expense incurred under the BoA Credit Agreement at an annual rate equal to LIBOR (or, if necessary, a broadly-adopted replacement index) plus an applicable margin that ranges from 1.50% to 2.25%, depending on the Company’s consolidated leverage ratio.
In the year ended March 31, 2020, interest expense was attributable to 1) fees related to obtaining debt, which were recorded as debt issuance costs and expensed as a component of interest expense over the life of the debt; and 2) interest expense incurred on the prior credit agreement with Western Alliance Bank, which was the previous senior credit facility of the Company that was terminated on February 3, 2021, at approximately 5.5% (LIBOR + 3.75% with a 1.75% LIBOR floor). During the majority of the year ended March 31, 2020, the Company had no outstanding debt and incurred no interest expense.
In the year ended March 31, 2019, interest expense was primarily attributable to 1) fees related to the obtaining debt, which were recorded as debt issuance costs and expensed as a component of interest expense over the life of the debt; 2) interest expense incurred from the $16,000 aggregate principal amount of 8.75% Convertible Notes due 2020 (the “Notes”), issued on September 28, 2016; 3) from amounts drawn on our business finance agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) with Western Alliance Bank (the “Bank”) at approximately 6.75% (Wall Street Journal Prime Rate + 0.50%); and 4) amortization of debt discount related to the Notes, which were expensed as a component of interest expense over the life of the debt.
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Interest income consists of interest income earned on our cash.
The Company recorded $(1,003), $41, and $(1,120) of aggregate interest income / (expense), inclusive of debt discount and debt issuance costs amortization, during the years ended March 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.
Change in fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability
The Company accounts for the convertible note embedded derivative liability issued in accordance with US GAAP accounting guidance under ASC 815 applicable to derivative instruments, which requires every derivative instrument within its scope to be recorded on the balance sheet as either an asset or liability measured at its fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. All convertible notes were settled prior to the year ended March 31, 2020 and therefore no amounts associated with this derivative liability were recognized in the year ended March 31, 2021 or 2020.
During the year ended March 31, 2019, the Company recorded a loss from change in fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability of $1,008 due to the increase of the Company's stock price from $2.01 at March 31, 2018 to $3.50 at March 31, 2019, partially offset by the settling of $5,700 of the underlying debt instruments.
Change in fair value of warrant liability
The Company accounts for the warrants issued in connection with the above-noted sale of Notes in accordance with US GAAP accounting guidance under ASC 815 applicable to derivative instruments, which requires every derivative instrument within its scope to be recorded on the balance sheet as either an asset or liability measured at its fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. Based on this guidance, the Company determined that these warrants did not meet the criteria for classification as equity. Accordingly, the Company classified the warrants as long-term liabilities. The warrants are subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date, with any change in fair value recognized as a component of other income / (expense), net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income / (Loss).
Due to the valuation of the derivative liability being highly sensitive to the trading price of the Company's stock, the increase and decrease in the trading price of the Company's stock has the impact of increasing the (loss) and gain, respectively. All warrants related to these Notes were exercised during the year ended March 31, 2020 and the associated liability settled.
During the year ended March 31, 2020, the Company recorded a loss from change in fair value of warrant liability of $9,580 due to the increase of the Company's stock price from $3.50 at March 31, 2019 to $4.18 at March 31, 2020, partially offset by the exercise of all remaining warrants.
During the year ended March 31, 2019, the Company recorded a loss from change in fair value of warrant liability of $4,875 due to the increase of the Company's stock price from $2.01 at March 31, 2018 to $3.50 at March 31, 2019, partially offset by the exercise of 484,900 warrants.
Change in estimated contingent consideration
On February 28, 2020, the Company completed the acquisition of Mobile Posse, pursuant to the previously-reported stock purchase agreement (the "Purchase Agreement") with ACME Mobile, LLC (“ACME”), Mobile Posse, and certain equity holders of ACME. The Company acquired all of the outstanding capital stock of Mobile Posse in exchange for an estimated total consideration of: (1) $41,500 in cash paid at closing (subject to customary closing purchase price adjustments) and (2) an estimated earn-out of $23,735, to be paid in cash, based on Mobile Posse achieving certain future target net revenues, less associated revenue shares, over a twelve-month period following the closing of the acquisition, noting that the earn-out amount is subject to change based on final results and calculation.
Under the terms of the earn-out, over the earn-out period, the Company paid ACME a certain percentage of actual net revenues (less associated revenue shares) of Mobile Posse, depending on the extent to which Mobile Posse achieved certain target net revenues (less associated revenue shares) for the relevant period. Due to the financial results of Mobile Posse during the earn-out period, in addition to the initial estimated contingent consideration of $23,735, the Company made additional earn-out payments in the amount of $15,751 during the year ended March 31, 2021. The earn-out period concluded during the year ended March 31, 2021.
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Loss on extinguishment of debt
During the year ended March 31, 2021, connected with the early termination of the Western Alliance credit agreement, the Company recorded a loss on extinguishment of debt of $452, which represents the write-off of all remaining unamortized debt issuance costs related to the Western Alliance credit agreement, as well as cash expenses incurred for the early extinguishment of the credit facility.
No loss on extinguishment of debt was recorded during the year ended March 31, 2020.
During the year ended March 31, 2019, connected with the settlement of a portion of the convertible notes, the Company recorded a loss on extinguishment of debt of $431, which represents the difference between the carrying value of the settled debt (including underlying derivative instruments) and the consideration given to settle the debt, in this case primarily stock.
Income taxes
Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 740 requires the consideration of a valuation allowance, on a jurisdictional basis, to reflect the likelihood of realization of deferred tax assets. Significant management judgment is required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets. During the year ended March 31, 2021, the Company’s pre-tax income in the U.S. continued to increase such that the Company was no longer in a cumulative three-year loss position. Following the acquisition and integration of Mobile Posse, the Company was able to sustain this pre-tax income position throughout the full fiscal year. In the fourth quarter ended March 31, 2021, based on management’s assessment of this income trend following the integration of Mobile Posse, we determined that the U.S. deferred tax assets were more likely than not realizable based on expected future taxable income. A net tax benefit of $11,782 was realized in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021 as a result of the release of the U.S. valuation allowance.
As part of the stock acquisition of Mobile Posse on February 28, 2020, the Company recorded a net U.S. deferred tax liability of $10,552 on the opening balance sheet. The deferred tax liability primarily related to intangible assets recorded at fair market value for financial accounting purposes compared to the carryover of historical tax basis. The acquired deferred tax liabilities represent a source of positive evidence with respect to the Company’s ability to realize deferred tax assets. In accordance with ASC 805-740-30-3, a change in the acquirer’s valuation allowance as a result of a business combination is recorded as a component of income tax expense. As a result of the business combination, the Company released $10,552 of valuation allowance as a component of income tax expense in the year ended March 31, 2020.
The Company’s income is subject to taxation in both the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in evaluating the Company’s tax positions and determining its provision for income taxes. The Company establishes liabilities for income tax-related uncertainties based on estimates of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. These liabilities for tax contingencies are established when the Company believes that a tax position is not more likely than not sustainable. The Company adjusts these liabilities in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the outcome of a tax audit or lapse of a statute of limitations. The provision for income taxes includes the impact of uncertain tax liabilities and changes in liabilities that are considered appropriate.
The Company’s effective tax rate differs from the U.S. federal statutory tax rate primarily as a result of changes in valuation allowance, tax deductions in excess of book for stock compensation, nondeductible changes in stock acquisition earn-out and warrant liabilities, and state income taxes.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
March 31, 2021March 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Cash$30,778 $21,534 
Restricted cash340 125 
Short-term debt
Short-term debt, net of debt issuance costs of $443 and $62, respectively14,557 1,188 
Total short-term debt14,557 1,188 
Long-term debt
Long-term debt, net of debt issuance costs of $0 and $245, respectively— 18,505 
Total long-term debt— 18,505 
Working capital
Current assets97,385 58,447 
Current liabilities111,149 82,809 
Working capital$(13,764)$(24,362)
Our primary sources of liquidity have historically been issuances of common and preferred stock, debt, and cash from operations. As of March 31, 2021, we had cash, including restricted cash, totaling approximately $31,118.
The Company anticipates that its primary sources of liquidity will continue to be cash-on-hand, cash provided by operations, and the credit available under the Company's senior credit facility. In addition, the Company may raise additional capital through future equity or, subject to restrictions contained in the Company's senior credit facility, debt financing to finance the future purchase price and earn-out payment obligations with respect to the AdColony and Fyber acquisitions, provide for greater flexibility to make acquisitions, make new investments in under-capitalized opportunities, or invest in organic opportunities.
Additional financing may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. If the Company issues additional equity securities to raise funds, the ownership percentage of its existing stockholders would be reduced. New investors may demand rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of existing holders of common stock. The Company believes that it has sufficient cash and capital resources to operate its business for at least twelve months from the filing date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
BoA Revolving Line of Credit
On February 3, 2021, the Company entered into a credit agreement ("the BoA Credit Agreement') with Bank of America, N.A. (the “Bank”), which provides for a revolving line of credit of $100,000, with an accordion feature enabling the Company to increase the amount to up to $200,000, to be used for acquisitions, working capital, and general corporate purposes. DT Media and DT USA are additional co-borrowers under the BoA Credit Agreement.
The revolving line of credit matures on February 3, 2024.
In connection with the Company entering into the BoA Credit Agreement with the Bank as described above, on February 3, 2021, the Company and Western Alliance Bank terminated the credit agreement dated February 28, 2020, by and among the Company, DT Media, DT USA, and Western Alliance Bank (and the amendments thereto), which was the previous term loan and revolving credit facility of the Company.
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Amounts outstanding under the BoA Credit Agreement accrue interest at an annual rate equal to LIBOR (or, if necessary, a broadly-adopted replacement index) plus an applicable margin that ranges from 1.50% to 2.25%, depending on the Company’s consolidated leverage ratio. The obligations under the BoA Credit Agreement are secured by a grant of a security interest in substantially all of the assets of the Company and its subsidiaries. The BoA Credit Agreement contains customary covenants, representations, and events of default, and also requires the Company to comply with a maximum consolidated leverage ratio and minimum fixed charge coverage ratio.
At March 31, 2021, there was $15,000 outstanding principal on the BoA Credit Agreement and the Company had $85,000 available to draw.
April 2021 Credit Facility
Subsequent to year end, on April 29, 2021, the Company entered into an amended and restated Credit Agreement (the “New Credit Agreement”) with Bank of America, N.A., as a lender and administrative agent, and a syndicate of lenders, which provides for a revolving line of credit of $400,000 to be used for working capital, permitted acquisitions, capital expenditures, and other lawful corporate purposes. DT Media and DT USA are additional co-borrowers under the Credit Agreement, and Mobile Posse is a guarantor (together with the Company, DT Media and DT USA, collectively, the “Loan Parties”). This modification replaced the existing BoA Credit Agreement. The New Credit Agreement contains an accordion feature that permits an increase of the revolver by up to $75,000 plus an amount that would enable the Loan Parties to remain in compliance with a consolidated secured net leverage ratio, on such terms as agreed to by the parties.
The revolving line of credit matures on April 29, 2026.
Amounts outstanding under the Credit Agreement accrue interest at an annual rate equal to, at the Company’s election, (i) LIBOR plus between 1.50% and 2.25% based on the Company’s consolidated leverage ratio or (ii) a base rate determined based upon the highest of (a) the federal funds rate plus 0.50%, (b) Bank of America, N.A.’s prime rate or (c) LIBOR plus 1.00%, plus between 0.50% and 1.25% based on the Company’s consolidated leverage ratio. The Credit Agreement contains customary covenants, representations and events of default, and also requires the Company to comply with a maximum consolidated secured net leverage ratio and minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio.
The Loan Parties’ payment and performance obligations under the New Credit Agreement and related loan documents are secured by their grant of a security interest in substantially all of their personal property assets, whether now existing or hereafter acquired, subject to certain exclusions. If the Loan Parties acquire any real property assets with a fair market value in excess of $5,000, they are required to grant a security interest in such real property as well. All such security interests are required to be first priority security interests, subject to certain permitted liens.
Cash Flow Summary
Year ended March 31,Year ended March 31,
20212020% of Change20202019% of Change
(in thousands) (in thousands) 
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows Data:   
Net cash provided by operating activities - continuing operations$62,795 $33,670 86.5 %$33,670 $4,970 577.5 %
Capital expenditures(9,204)(4,845)(90.0)%(4,845)(2,314)(109.4)%
Acquisition of Appreciate, net of cash(20,348)— (100.0)%— — — %
Acquisition of Mobile Posse, net of cash(8,256)(41,872)80.3 %(41,872)— (100.0)%
Proceeds from borrowings15,000 20,000 (25.0)%20,000 — 100.0 %
Payment of debt issuance costs(469)(313)(49.8)%(313)— (100.0)%
Payment of contingent consideration(16,956)— (100.0)%— — — %
Options and warrants exercised7,209 6,488 11.1 %6,488 734 783.9 %
Repayment of debt obligations(20,000)— (100.0)%— (1,650)100.0 %
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash$(312)$(235)(32.8)%$(235)$(31)(658.1)%
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Operating Activities
During the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company's net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations was $62,795 and $33,670, respectively, an increase of $29,125, or 86.5%. The increase in net cash provided by operating activities was primarily attributable to depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, and changes in working capital accounts over the comparative periods.
During the year ended March 31, 2021, net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations was $62,795, resulting from net income of $54,884 offset by net non-cash expenses of $13,340, which included depreciation and amortization, non-cash interest expense, stock-based compensation, stock-based compensation for services rendered, loss on extinguishment of debt, change in estimate of remaining contingent consideration, and payment of contingent consideration in excess of amounts capitalized at acquisition of approximately $7,114, $94, $4,853, $1,024, $255, $15,751, and $(15,751), respectively. Depreciation and amortization expense relates primarily to capitalized software development costs and acquired technology and IP-related intangible assets. Stock-based compensation expense relates primarily to options granted to our employees and, to a lesser extent, to restricted stock awards for executives and our Board of Directors. The net impact of the change in estimated earn-out due to ACME Mobile for the acquisition of Mobile Posse and the payment of this additional earn-out is $0 on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows; the $15,751 represents additional earn-out payments earned by ACME Mobile due to actual financial results during the earn-out period in excess of amounts capitalized under ASC 805 - Purchase Accounting. These amounts were all paid during the period. Net cash provided by operating activities during fiscal year 2021 was negatively impacted by the net change in working capital accounts as of March 31, 2021 compared to March 31, 2020, with a net increase over the comparative periods in current liabilities of $32,456 offset by an increase in current assets of approximately $24,540.
During the year ended March 31, 2020, net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations was $33,670, resulting from net income of $14,280 offset by net non-cash expenses of $15,281, which included depreciation and amortization, non-cash interest expense, stock-based compensation, stock-based compensation for services rendered, change in fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability, and change in fair value of warrant liability of debt of approximately $2,342, $6, $2,710, $643, and $9,580, respectively. Depreciation and amortization expense relates primarily to capitalized software development costs and acquired technology and IP-related intangible assets. Stock-based compensation expense relates primarily to options granted to our employees and, to a lesser extent, to restricted stock awards for executives and our Board of Directors. The change in fair value of warrant liability was a result of the settlement of all outstanding warrants related to the convertible notes during fiscal year 2020. Net cash provided by operating activities during fiscal year 2020 was negatively impacted by the net change in working capital accounts as of March 31, 2020 compared to March 31, 2019, with a net increase over the comparative periods in current liabilities of approximately $15,239 offset by an increase in current assets of approximately $272.
During the year ended March 31, 2019, net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations was $4,970, resulting from a net loss of $4,302 offset by net non-cash expenses of $12,409, which included depreciation and amortization, non-cash interest expense, stock-based compensation, stock-based compensation for services rendered, change in fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability, change in fair value of warrant liability, and loss on extinguishment of debt of approximately $2,766, $798, $2,011, $520, $1,008, $4,875, and $431, respectively. Depreciation and amortization expense relates primarily to capitalized software development costs and acquired technology and IP-related intangible assets. Stock-based compensation expense relates primarily to options granted to our employees and, to a lesser extent, to restricted stock awards for executives and our Board of Directors. The change in fair value of warrant liability was primarily a result of the change in our stock price during fiscal year 2019, offset by the settlement of a portion of the outstanding warrants. Net cash provided by operating activities during fiscal year 2019 was positively impacted by the net change in working capital accounts as of March 31, 2019 compared to March 31, 2018, with a net increase over the comparative periods in current liabilities of approximately $2,212 offset by an increase in current assets of approximately $5,531.
Investing Activities
During the year ended March 31, 2021, cash used in investing activities was approximately $37,808, which includes capital expenditures of $9,204, comprised mostly of internally-developed software, the acquisition of Appreciate, net of cash, for $20,348, and earn-out payments associated with the acquisition of Mobile Posse, net of cash, for $8,256.
During the year ended March 31, 2020, cash used in investing activities was approximately $46,717, which includes capital expenditures of $4,845, comprised mostly of internally-developed software, and the acquisition of Mobile Posse, net of cash, for $41,872.
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During the year ended March 31, 2019, cash used in investing activities was approximately $2,314, which includes capital expenditures of $2,314, comprised mostly of internally-developed software.
Financing Activities
During the year ended March 31, 2021, cash used in financing activities was approximately $15,216, which is primarily attributable to proceeds from borrowings of $15,000 and proceeds received from the exercise of stock options of approximately $7,209, offset by the payment of debt issuance costs of $469, payment of contingent consideration of $16,956, and repayment of debt obligations of $20,000.
During the year ended March 31, 2020, cash provided by financing activities was approximately $26,175, which is primarily attributable to proceeds from borrowings of $20,000 and proceeds received from the exercise of stock options and warrants of approximately $6,488, offset by payment of debt issuance costs of $313.
During the year ended March 31, 2019, cash used in financing activities was approximately $916, which is primarily attributable to proceeds received from the exercise of stock options and warrants of approximately $734, offset by the repayment of debt obligations of approximately $1,650.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partners, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. In addition, we do not have any undisclosed borrowings or debt, and we have not entered into any synthetic leases. We believe, therefore, that we are not materially exposed to any financing, liquidity, market, or credit risks that could arise if we had engaged in such relationships.
Contractual Cash Obligations
The following table summarizes our contractual cash obligations at March 31, 2021:
Payments Due by Period
Contractual cash obligationsTotalLess Than 1 Year1-3 Years3 to 5 YearsMore Than 5 Years
Operating leases (a)$7,027 $1,716 $3,242 $2,069 $— 
Debt repayments15,000 15,000 — — — 
Bank fees450 150 300 — — 
Uncertain tax positions (b)— — — — — 
Total contractual cash obligations$22,477 $16,866 $3,542 $2,069 $— 
(a)Consists of operating leases for our office facilities.
(b)We have approximately $1,077 in additional liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions that are not expected to be liquidated within the next twelve months. We are unable to reliably estimate the expected payment dates for these additional non-current liabilities.
Cash Contractual Obligations Associated with Acquisitions
Under the terms of the Share Purchase Agreement for the acquisition of AdColony, we must pay $100,000 in cash on or before October 29, 2021 and an earn-out payment estimated between $150,000 to $175,000 in cash following December 31, 2021. In addition, under the terms of the Sale and Purchase Agreement for the acquisition of Fyber, we must pay the tender offer consideration in cash and make a potential earn-out payment of up to $50,000, which may be paid in shares of our common stock or, under certain circumstances, in cash. On April 29, 2021, we entered into the New Credit Agreement and borrowed approximately $107,000 on the revolver on that date, and we borrowed an additional $130,000 on the revolver on May 25, 2021 to fund the cash closing payments for the AdColony and Fyber acquisitions. In order to fund the future cash payments due in respect of the AdColony and Fyber acquisitions, we will need to use cash flows from operations and borrowings under the New Credit Agreement and may need to access the capital markets. If our cash flows and borrowings under our revolving credit facility are not available for any reason, we would need to seek funds from the capital markets.
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Critical Accounting Policies
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those related to contingencies, litigation, and goodwill and intangible assets acquired from our acquisitions. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
We believe the following critical accounting policies affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our financial statements.
Basis of Presentation
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for annual financial statements. The financial statements, in the opinion of management, include all adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the results of operations, financial position, and cash flows of the Company for each period presented.
Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of our financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition
In accordance with ASC 606, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these services.
Carriers and OEMs
As discussed above, contracts with carriers and OEMs are created to help the customer control, manage, and monetize the mobile device through the marketing of application slots or advertisement space/inventory to advertisers and delivering the applications or advertisements to the mobile device. The Company generally offers these services under a revenue share model or, to a lesser extent, a customer contract per-device license fee model for a two-to-four year software as a service ("SaaS") license agreement. These agreements typically include the following services: the access to a SaaS platform, hosting, solution features, and general support and maintenance. The Company has concluded that each promised service is delivered concurrently, interdependently, and continuously with all other promised services over the contract term and, as such, has concluded these promises are a single performance obligation that is delivered to the customer over a series of distinct service periods over the contract term. The Company meets the criteria for overtime recognition because the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company's performance as the Company performs, and the same method would be used to measure progress over each distinct service period. The fees for such services are not known at contract inception, but are measurable during each distinct service period. The Company's contracts do not include advance non-refundable fees. The Company’s fees for these services are based upon a revenue-share arrangement with the carrier or OEM. Both parties have agreed to share the revenue earned from third-party advertisers, discussed below, for these services.
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Third-Party Advertisers
Application Management Software
The Company generally offers these services under customer contract Cost-Per-Install or CPI arrangements, Cost-Per-Placement or CPP arrangements, and/or Cost-Per-Action or CPA arrangements with third-party advertisers and developers, as well as advertising aggregators, generally in the form of insertion orders that specify the type of arrangement (as detailed above) at particular set budget amounts/restraints. These advertiser customer contracts are generally short-term in nature, at less than one year, as the budget amounts are typically spent in full within this time period. These agreements typically include the delivery of applications to home screens of mobile devices. Access to inventory of application slots is allocated by carriers or OEMs in the contracts identified above. The Company controls these application slots and markets it on behalf of the carriers and OEMs to the advertisers. The Company has concluded that the performance obligation within the contract is complete upon delivery of the application to the device. Revenue recognition related to CPI and CPA arrangements is dependent upon an action of the end user. As a result, the transaction price is variable and is fully constrained until an install or action occurs.
Programmatic Advertising and Targeted Media Delivery
The Company generally offers these services under cost-per-thousand impression arrangements and page-view arrangements. Through its mobile phone first screen applications and mobile web portals, the Company markets ad space/inventory within its content products for display advertising. The ad space/inventory is allocated to the Company through arrangement with the carrier or OEM in the contracts discussed above. The Company controls this ad space/inventory and markets it on behalf of the carriers and OEMs to the advertisers. The Company’s advertising customers can bid on each individual display ad and the highest bid wins the right to fill each ad impression. Advertising agencies acting on the behalf of advertisers bid on the ad placement via the Company’s advertising exchange customers. When the bid is won, the ad will be received and placed on the mobile device by the Company. The entire process happens almost instantaneously and on a continuous basis. The advertising exchanges bill and collect from the winning bidders and provide daily and monthly reports of the activity to the Company. The Company has concluded that the performance obligation is satisfied at the point in time upon delivery of the advertisement to the device based on the impressions or page-view arrangement, as defined in the contract.
Through its mobile phone first screen applications and mobile web portals, the Company’s software platform also recommends sponsored content to mobile phone users and drives web traffic to a customer's website. The Company markets this content to content sponsors, such as Outbrain or Taboola, similarly to the marketing of ad space/inventory. This sponsored content takes the form of articles, graphics, pictures, and similar content. The Company has concluded that the performance obligation within the contract is complete upon delivery of the content to the mobile device.
Gross vs Net Reporting
The Company has determined that it is the primary obligor for its advertiser services for application management and programmatic advertising and targeted media delivery when it controls the application slots or ad space/inventory. This is because it has been allocated such slots or space from the carrier or OEM and is responsible for marketing or monetizing the slots or space. The advertisers look to the Company to acquire such slots or space, and the Company’s software is used to deliver the applications, ads or content to the mobile device. The Company also may manage application or ad campaigns of advertisers associated with these services. If the applications or advertisements are not delivered to the mobile device or the Company doesn’t comply with certain policies of the advertiser, the Company would be responsible and have to indemnify the customer for these issues. The Company also has discretion in setting the price of the slots or space based on market conditions, collects the transaction prices, and remits the revenue-share percentage of the transaction price to the carrier or OEM.
The Company recognizes the transaction price received from advertisers, content providers, or websites gross and the carrier or OEM share of such transaction price as costs of revenues - license fees and revenue share - in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income / (Loss).
The carrier or OEM may have the right to market and sell application slots or ad space to advertisers using the Company’s software. The carrier or OEM will share revenue with the Company when it does so. The Company recognizes the revenue shared by the carrier or OEM on a net basis as the Company is not considered the primary obligor in these transactions.
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Allowance for Credit Losses
The Company maintains reserves for current expected credit losses on accounts receivable. Management reviews the composition of accounts receivable and analyzes historical bad debts, customer concentrations, current economic trends, and changes in customer payment patterns to evaluate the adequacy of these reserves.
Software Development Costs
The Company applies the principles of FASB ASC 985-20, Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software to Be Sold, Leased, or Otherwise Marketed (“ASC 985-20”). ASC 985-20 requires that software development costs incurred in conjunction with product development be charged to research and development expense until technological feasibility is established. Thereafter, until the product is released for sale, software development costs must be capitalized and reported at the lower of the unamortized cost or net realizable value of the related product. At this time, we do not invest significant capital into the research and development phase of new products and features as the technological feasibility aspect of our platform products has either already been met or is met very quickly.
The Company has adopted the “tested working model” approach to establishing technological feasibility for its products. Under this approach, the Company does not consider a product in development to have passed the technological feasibility milestone until the Company has completed a model of the product that contains essentially all the functionality and features of the final product and has tested the model to ensure that it works as expected.
The Company considers the following factors in determining whether costs can be capitalized: the emerging nature of the mobile market; the gradual evolution of the wireless carrier platforms and devices for which it develops products; the lack of pre-orders or sales history for its products; the uncertainty regarding a product’s revenue-generating potential; its lack of control over the carrier distribution channel resulting in uncertainty as to when, if ever, a product will be available for sale; and its historical practice of canceling products at any stage of the development process.
After products and features are released, all product maintenance cost are expensed.
The Company also applies the principles of FASB ASC 350-40, Accounting for the Cost of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use (“ASC 350-40”). ASC 350-40 requires that software development costs incurred before the preliminary project stage be expensed as incurred. We capitalize development costs related to these software applications once the preliminary project stage is complete and it is probable that the project will be completed and the software will be used to perform the functions intended.
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC 740-10, Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASC 740-10”), which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in its financial statements or tax returns. Under ASC 740-10, the Company determines deferred tax assets and liabilities for temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of assets and liabilities, along with net operating losses, if it is more likely than not the tax benefits will be realized using the enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which it expects the differences to reverse. To the extent a deferred tax asset cannot be recognized, a valuation allowance is established, if necessary.
The Company is required to evaluate its ability to realize its deferred tax assets using all available evidence, both positive and negative, and determine if a valuation allowance is needed. Further, ASC 740-10-30-18 outlines the four possible sources of taxable income that may be available to realize a tax benefit for deductible temporary differences and carry-forwards. The sources of taxable income are listed below from least to most subjective:
Future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences
Future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards
Taxable income in prior carryback year(s) if carryback is permitted under the tax law
Tax-planning strategies that would, if necessary, be implemented to, for example:
Accelerate taxable amounts to utilize expiring carryforwards
Change the character of taxable or deductible amounts from ordinary income or loss to capital gain or loss
Switch from tax-exempt to taxable investments
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ASC 740-10 prescribes that a company should use a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold based on the technical merits of the tax position taken. Tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold should be measured as the largest amount of the tax benefits, determined on a cumulative probability basis, which is more likely than not to be realized upon ultimate settlement in the financial statements. We recognize interest and penalties related to income tax matters as a component of the provision for income taxes.
The Company’s income is subject to taxation in both the United States and foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in evaluating the Company’s tax positions and determining its provision for income taxes. The Company establishes reserves for income tax-related uncertainties based on estimates of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. These reserves for tax contingencies are established when the Company believes that positions do not meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold. The Company adjusts uncertain tax liabilities in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the outcome of a tax audit or lapse of a statute of limitations. The provision for income taxes includes the impact of uncertain tax liabilities and changes in liabilities that are considered appropriate.
Stock-Based Compensation
We have applied FASB ASC 718, Share-Based Payment (“ASC 718”), and, accordingly, we record stock-based compensation expense for all of our stock-based awards.
Under ASC 718, we estimate the fair value of stock options granted using the Black-Scholes model. The fair value for awards that are expected to vest is amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is generally the option vesting term. The amount of expense recognized represents the expense associated with the stock options we expect to vest, based on an estimated rate of forfeitures. This rate of forfeitures is updated, as necessary, and any adjustments needed to recognize the fair value of options that vest or are forfeited are recorded.
The Black-Scholes model, used to estimate the fair value of an award, requires the input of subjective assumptions, including the expected volatility of our common stock, interest rates, dividend rates, and an option’s expected life. As a result, the financial statements include amounts that are based on our best estimates and judgments for the expenses recognized for stock-based compensation.
Business Combinations
We allocate the fair value of purchase consideration to the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Significant estimates in valuing certain intangible assets include, but are not limited to, estimated replacement costs and future expected cash flows from acquired users, acquired technology, acquired patents, and acquired trade names from a market participant perspective. Management's estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates. Allocation of purchase consideration to identifiable assets and liabilities affects Company amortization expense, as acquired finite-lived intangible assets are amortized over the useful life, whereas any indefinite lived intangible assets, including goodwill, are not amortized. During the measurement period, which is not to exceed one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to earnings.
Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of acquisition cost over fair value of net assets of businesses acquired. In accordance with FASB ASC 350-20, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, the value assigned to goodwill and indefinite lived intangible assets is not amortized to expense, but rather they are evaluated, at least on an annual basis, to determine if there are potential impairments.
For goodwill and indefinite lived intangible assets, we complete what is referred to as the “Step 0” analysis, which involves evaluating qualitative factors including macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, and overall financial performance. If our “Step 0” analysis indicates it is more likely than not the fair value is less than the carrying amount, we would perform a quantitative two-step impairment test.
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The quantitative analysis compares the fair value of our reporting unit or indefinite-lived intangible assets to their carrying amounts and an impairment loss is recognized equivalent to the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value. Fair value is determined based on discounted cash flows, market multiples, or appraised values, as appropriate. Discounted cash flow analysis requires assumptions about the timing and amount of future cash inflows and outflows, risk, the cost of capital, and terminal values. Each of these factors can significantly affect the value of the intangible asset. The estimates of future cash flows, based on reasonable and supportable assumptions and projections, require management’s judgment.
Any changes in key assumptions about the Company’s businesses and their prospects, or changes in market conditions, could result in an impairment charge. Some of the more significant estimates and assumptions inherent in the intangible asset valuation process include: the timing and amount of projected future cash flows; the discount rate selected to measure the risks inherent in the future cash flows; and the assessment of the asset’s life cycle and the competitive trends impacting the asset, including consideration of any technical, legal or regulatory trends.
In the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company determined there were no indicators of impairment of goodwill. See Note "Goodwill" to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report. In performing the related valuation analyses, the Company used various valuation methodologies including probability-weighted discounted cash flows, comparable transaction analysis, and market capitalization and comparable company multiple comparison.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements are detailed in Note 5 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We have operations both within the United States and internationally and we are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily consist of interest rate fluctuation and foreign currency exchange risks.
Interest Rate Fluctuation Risk
The primary objective of our investment activities is to preserve principal while maximizing income without significantly increasing risk. Our cash consists of cash and deposits which are not insensitive to interest rate changes.
Our borrowings under our credit facility are subject to variable interest rates and thus expose us to interest rate fluctuations, depending on the extent to which we utilize the credit facility. If market interest rates materially increase, our results of operations could be adversely affected. A hypothetical increase in market interest rates of 100 basis points would result in an increase in our interest expense of $10 per year for every $1,000 of outstanding debt under the credit facility.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
We have foreign currency risks related to our revenue and operating expenses denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.
While a portion of our sales are denominated in these foreign currencies and then translated into the U.S. dollar, the vast majority of our media costs are billed in the U.S. dollar, causing both our revenue and, disproportionately, our operating income / (loss) and net income / (loss) to be impacted by fluctuations in exchange rates. In addition, gain / (loss) related to translating certain cash balances, trade accounts receivable balances, and inter-company balances that are denominated in these currencies impact our net income / (loss). As our foreign operations expand, our results may be more impacted by fluctuations in the exchange rates of the currencies in which we do business. At this time, we do not, but we may in the future, enter into financial instruments to hedge our foreign currency exchange risk.
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ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
DIGITAL TURBINE, INC.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Consolidated Financial Statements
The supplementary financial information required by this Item 8 is set forth in Note 21 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements under the caption "Supplemental Consolidated Financial Information."
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Board of Directors and Stockholders
Digital Turbine, Inc.
Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Digital Turbine, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of March 31, 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income / (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for the year ended March 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of March 31, 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the year ended March 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2021, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated June 10, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audit included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audit also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical audit matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Income Tax Valuation Allowance
As described further in Note 4 and Note 16 of the Company’s consolidated financial statements, the Company’s net deferred income tax assets of $12.9 million are net of a valuation allowance of $5.2 million, for U.S. state and foreign deferred tax assets. For the year ended March 31, 2021, the Company recorded an income tax benefit of $13.0 million, of which $11.2 million was a reduction of the Company’s federal tax valuation allowance against substantially all of its U.S. federal deferred tax assets. Management records a valuation allowance, on a jurisdictional basis, to reduce the carrying value of deferred income tax assets to amounts that are more likely than not to be realized. We identified the estimation of the valuation allowance for deferred income tax assets as a critical audit matter.
The principal considerations for assessing the valuation allowance as a critical audit matter are the high level of estimation uncertainty and the level of audit effort and expertise required to audit the amount and timing of future taxable income. Management applies judgment in assessing all available positive and negative evidence, including the history of profitable operations and projected taxable income, in determining whether deferred income tax assets are more likely than not to be realized. Projected taxable income includes judgmental assumptions related to future revenue, and operating expenses, as well as the timing of realization of taxable temporary differences.
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Our procedures related to the estimation of the valuation allowance for deferred income tax assets included the following, among others:
a.We tested the design and operating effectiveness of controls over the accuracy of the valuation allowance by tax jurisdiction.
b.We obtained the Company’s future taxable income estimate used to support realization of the deferred tax asset. We determined the reasonableness of the projection by considering historical pre-tax income, adjusted for significant permanent items, as an estimate for future periods, published industry sector growth rate projections, and the historical pre-tax income of the recently acquired business. We also performed a sensitivity analysis of the estimate of the Company’s future taxable income, to determine if the Company’s net operating losses could be realized prior to expiration based on pre-tax income that was less than the future pre-tax income used in the Company’s estimate.
c.We recalculated future taxable income arising from the expected reversal of taxable temporary differences.
d.Professionals with specialized tax skill and knowledge were used to assist in evaluating management’s analysis, including cumulative taxable income and the reasonableness of management’s judgments and estimates.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2021.
Dallas, Texas
June 10, 2021
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Board of Directors and Stockholders
Digital Turbine, Inc.
Opinion on internal control over financial reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Digital Turbine, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of March 31, 2021, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of March 31, 2021, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by COSO.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended March 31, 2021, and our report dated June 10, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.
Basis for opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting (“Management’s Report”). Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Our audit of, and opinion on, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting does not include the internal control over financial reporting of Triapodi Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary, whose financial statements reflect total assets and revenues constituting 10.4 and 0.4 percent, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended March 31, 2021. As indicated in Management’s Report, Triapodi Ltd. was acquired during 2021. Management’s assertion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting excluded internal control over financial reporting of Triapodi Ltd.
Definition and limitations of internal control over financial reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
Dallas, Texas
June 10, 2021
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Digital Turbine, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Digital Turbine, Inc. and Subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”) as of March 31, 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income / (loss), stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended March 31, 2020, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements (collectively, the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of March 31, 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the two years in the period ended March 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ SingerLewak LLP
We served as the Company’s auditor from 2009 to 2021.
Los Angeles, California
June 2, 2020
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CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Digital Turbine, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
March 31, 2021March 31, 2020
ASSETS  
Current assets  
Cash$30,778 $21,534 
Restricted cash340 125 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances for credit losses of $5,488 and $4,059, respectively
61,985 33,135 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets4,282 3,653 
Total current assets97,385 58,447 
Property and equipment, net13,050 8,183 
Right-of-use assets3,495 4,237 
Deferred tax assets, net12,963  
Intangible assets, net53,300 43,882 
Goodwill80,176 69,262 
TOTAL ASSETS$260,369