Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Interim Consolidated Financial Information
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of Digital Turbine, Inc. and its subsidiaries should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") in Digital Turbine, Inc.'s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with US GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. In the opinion of management, the accompanying consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments of a normal recurring nature considered necessary to fairly state the financial position of Digital Turbine, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries at December 31, 2018, the results of its operations and corresponding comprehensive loss for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, and its cash flows for the nine months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All material inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The results of operations for the interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the fiscal year ending March 31, 2019.
The significant accounting policies and recent accounting pronouncements were described in Note 4 of the consolidated financial statements included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. There have been no significant changes in or updates to the accounting policies since March 31, 2018. Only significant new accounting pronouncements, pertinent to the Company, issued and adopted subsequent to the issuance of our Annual Report are described below. Accounting pronouncements issued and adopted not described in either the Annual Report or in this quarterly report have been determined to either not apply or to have an immaterial impact on our business and related disclosures.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standard Update 2018-15, which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal use software license). This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted upon its issuance. The amendments in this update will be applied prospectively. The Company is currently determining an adoption date but does not expect the impact of the future adoption of this standard to have a material impact on its consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In August 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update 2018-13: Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820). The amendments in this update modify the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, as a result of the FASB’s final deliberations of the financial reporting concepts pursuant to the March 4, 2014 issued FASB Concepts Statement, Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting—Chapter 8: Notes to Financial Statements, as they relate to fair value measurement disclosures. This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted upon its issuance. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. The Company will adopt ASU 2018-13 during the quarter ended June 30, 2019, and is currently assessing the impact of the future adoption of this standard on its consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In June 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update 2018-07: Compensation—Stock Compensation - Improvements to Non-employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This update aligns the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to employees and non-employees. The existing employee guidance will apply to nonemployee share-based transactions with some exceptions. In addition, the contractual term will be able to be used in lieu of an expected term in the option-pricing model for non-employee awards. This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted upon its issuance. The amendments in this update should be applied prospectively. The Company will adopt ASU 2018-07 during the quarter ended June 30, 2019, and is currently assessing the impact of the future adoption of this standard on its consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Other authoritative guidance issued by the FASB (including technical corrections to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the SEC did not, or are not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Pronouncements Adopted During the Period
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The ASU replaces most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP. Additionally, ASU 2014-09 requires enhanced disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. In July 2015, the FASB decided to delay the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year. The deferral resulted in the new revenue standard being effective for the Company for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning April 1, 2018. ASU 2014-09, as amended, is effective using either the full retrospective or modified retrospective transition approach, and the Company has elected to use the modified retrospective approach. FASB has issued several accounting standards updates to clarify certain topics within ASU 2014-09. The Company has adopted ASU 2014-09, and its related clarifying amendments (collectively known as ASC 606), effective on April 1, 2018. Please see section included below within Note 3 titled "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" for the required disclosures related to the impact of adopting this standard and a discussion of the Company's updated policies related to revenue recognition and accounting for costs to obtain and fulfill a customer contract.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
The Company adopted ASC 606 on April 1, 2018, and ASC 606 is effective from the period beginning April 1, 2016 using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the effective date. For contracts that were modified before the effective date, the Company reflected the aggregate effect of all modifications when identifying performance obligations and allocating transaction price in accordance with practical expedient ASC 606-10-65-1-(f)-4, which did not have a material effect on the adjustment to accumulated deficit. The reported results for fiscal year 2017 reflect the application of ASC 606 guidance while the reported results for fiscal year 2016 were prepared under the guidance of ASC 605, Revenue Recognition (ASC 605), which is also referred to herein as "legacy GAAP" or the "previous guidance". The adoption of ASC 606 represents a change in accounting principle that will more closely align revenue recognition with the delivery of the Company's services and will provide financial statement readers with enhanced disclosures. In accordance with ASC 606, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these services.
To achieve this core principle, the Company applied the following five steps:
1) Identify the contract with a customer
A contract with a customer exists when (i) the Company enters into an enforceable contract with a customer that defines each party’s rights regarding the services to be transferred and identifies the payment terms related to these services, (ii) the contract has commercial substance and, (iii) the Company determines that collection of substantially all consideration for services that are transferred is probable based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration. The Company applies judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer.
2) Identify the performance obligations in the contract
Performance obligations promised in a contract are identified based on the services that will be transferred to the customer that are both capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available from third parties or from the Company, and are distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the services is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. To the extent a contract includes multiple promised services, the Company must apply judgment to determine whether promised services are capable of being distinct and distinct in the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met the promised services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation.
3) Determine the transaction price
The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which the Company will be entitled in exchange for transferring services to the customer. None of the Company's contracts contain financing or variable consideration components.
4) Allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative standalone selling price basis. The Company determines standalone selling price based on the price at which the performance obligation is sold separately. If the standalone selling price is not observable through past transactions, the Company estimates the standalone selling price taking into account available information such as market conditions and internally approved pricing guidelines related to the performance obligations.
5) Recognize revenue when or as the Company satisfies a performance obligation
The Company satisfies performance obligations at a point in time as discussed in further detail under "Disaggregation of Revenue" below. Revenue is recognized at the time the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring a promised service to a customer.
Disaggregation of Revenue
All of the Company's performance obligations, and associated revenue, are generally transferred to customers at a point in time.
The Company’s advertising business consists of O&O, an advertiser solution for unique and exclusive carrier and OEM inventory, which is comprised of services including:
Carriers and OEMs
The Company generally offers these services under a vendor contract revenue share model or under a customer contract per device license fee model with carriers and OEMs for a two to four year software as a service ("SaaS") license agreement. These agreements typically include the following services: the access to the SaaS platform, hosting fees, solution features, and general support and maintenance. The Company has concluded that each promised service is delivered concurrently with all other promised service over the contract term and, as such, has concluded these promises are a single performance obligation that includes a series of distinct services that have the same pattern of transfer to the customer. Consideration for the Company’s license arrangements consist of fixed and usage based fees, invoiced monthly or quarterly. The Company's contracts do not include advance non-refundable fees. Monthly license fees are based on the number of devices on a per device license fee basis. Monthly hosting and maintenance fees are generally fixed. These monthly fees are subject to a service level agreement ("SLA"), which requires that the services are available to the customer based on a predefined performance criteria. If the services do not meet these criteria, monthly fees are subject to adjustment or refund. The Company satisfies its performance obligation by providing access to its SaaS platform over time and processing transactions. For non-usage based fees, the period of time over which the Company performs its obligations is inherently commensurate with the contract term. The performance obligation is recognized on time elapsed basis, by month for which the services are provided. For usage-based fees, revenue is recognized in the month in which the Company provides the usage to the customer.
The Company generally offers these services under a customer contract Cost-Per-Install or CPI arrangements, Cost-Per-Placement or CPP arrangements, and/or Cost-Per-Action or CPA arrangements with third-party advertisers and developers, as well as advertising aggregators, generally in the form of insertion orders that specify the type of arrangement (as detailed above) at particular set budget amounts/restraints. These advertiser customer contracts are generally short term in nature at less than one year as the budget amounts are typically spent in full within this time period. These agreements typically include the delivery of applications through partner networks, defined as carriers or OEMs, to home screens of devices. The Company has concluded that the delivery of the advertisers application is delivered at a point in time and, as such, has concluded these deliveries are a single performance obligation. The Company invoices fees which are generally variable based on the arrangement, which would typically include the number of applications delivered at a specified price per application. For applications delivered, revenue is recognized in the month in which the Company delivers the application to the end consumer.
The Company offers professional services that support the implementation of its Ignite platform for carriers and OEMs, including technology development and integration services. These contracts generally include delivery and integration of the technology development product and revenue recognized when formal acceptance is confirmed by the customer. Services are billed in one lump sum. For the majority of these contracts, for which the Company has the right to invoice the customer in an amount that directly corresponds with the value to the customer of the Company's performance to date, the Company recognizes revenue based on the amount billable to the customer in accordance with practical expedient ASC 606-10-55-18.
Costs to Obtain and Fulfill a Contract
The Company capitalizes commission expenses paid to internal sales personnel that are incremental to obtaining customer contracts. These costs are deferred in “prepaid expenses and other current assets,” net of any long-term portion included in “other non-current assets." The judgments made in determining the amount of costs incurred include whether the commissions are in fact incremental and would not have occurred absent the customer contract. Costs to obtain a contract are amortized as sales and marketing expense on a straight line basis over the expected period of benefit. These costs are periodically reviewed for impairment. The Company has evaluated related activity in prior periods and have determined the costs to obtain a contract to be immaterial and do not require disclosure.
The Company capitalizes costs incurred to fulfill its contracts that i) relate directly to the contract, ii) are expected to generate resources that will be used to satisfy the Company’s performance obligation under the contract and iii) are expected to be recovered through revenue generated under the contract. Contract fulfillment costs are expensed to cost of revenue as the Company satisfies its performance obligations by transferring the service to the customer. These costs, which are classified in “prepaid expenses and other current assets,” net of any long term portion included in “other non-current assets,” principally relate to direct costs that enhance resources under the Company’s demand response contracts that will be used in satisfying future performance obligations. The Company has evaluated related activity in prior periods and have determined the costs to fulfill a contract to be immaterial and do not require disclosure.
Financial Statement Impact of Adopting ASC 606
The Company adopted ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method. After applying the new guidance to all contracts with customers that were not completed as of April 1, 2017, the Company has determined no changes in revenues or contract costs for which an adjustment would be required to accumulated deficit as of the adoption date. As a result of applying the modified retrospective method to adopt the new revenue guidance, the Company determined that the impact of adoption was not material and that no adjustments would need to be made to accounts to the consolidated balance sheet as of April 1, 2017.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and accounts receivable. A significant portion of the Company’s cash is held at one major financial institution that the Company's management has assessed to be of high credit quality. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
The Company mitigates its credit risk with respect to accounts receivable by performing credit evaluations and monitoring advertisers' and carriers' accounts receivable balances. The Company counts all advertisers and carriers within a single corporate structure as one customer, even in cases where multiple brands, branches, or divisions of an organization enter into separate contracts with the Company. As of December 31, 2018, one major customer represented approximately 36.2% of the Company’s net accounts receivable balance. As of March 31, 2018, one major customer represented 28.3% of the Company's net accounts receivable balance.
With respect to revenue concentration, the Company defines a customer as an advertiser or a carrier that is a distinct source of revenue and is legally bound to pay for the services that the Company delivers on the advertiser’s or carrier's behalf. During the three and nine months ended December 31, 2018, Oath Inc. represented 28.8% and 31.1% of net revenues, respectively. During the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017, Oath Inc. represented 23.7% and 23.3% of net revenues, respectively, and Machine Zone, Inc. represented 17.7% and 18.0% of net revenues, respectively.
The Company partners with mobile carriers and OEMs to deliver applications on our Ignite platform through the carrier network. During the three and nine months ended December 31, 2018, Verizon Wireless, a carrier partner, generated 43.7% and 47.6%, respectively, while AT&T Inc., a carrier partner, including its Cricket subsidiary, generated 38.5% and 38.4%, respectively, of our net revenues. During the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017, Verizon Wireless, generated 49.3% and 52.8%, respectively, while AT&T Inc., including its Cricket subsidiary, generated 40.0% and 32.4%, respectively, of our net revenues.
There is no assurance that the Company will continue to receive significant revenues from any of these or from other large customers. A reduction or delay in operating activity from any of the Company’s significant customers, or a delay or default in payment by any significant customer, or a termination of agreements with significant customers, could materially harm the Company’s business and prospects. Because of the Company’s significant customer concentrations, its net sales and operating income could fluctuate significantly due to changes in political or economic conditions, or the loss of, reduction of business from, or less favorable terms with any of the Company's significant customers.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates that impact the reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates are recurring in nature and relate to transactions occurring in the normal course of business. In the opinion of management, these are appropriate estimates for arrangements to be settled at a later date based on the facts and circumstances available at the time of filing. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef