Fair Value Measurements
|3 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2019
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Measurements||
Fair Value Measurements
The inputs to the valuation techniques used to measure fair value are classified into the following categories:
Level 1: Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable market-based inputs or unobservable inputs that are corroborated by market data.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are not corroborated by market data.
The Company’s financial liabilities as of the issuance date of the convertible notes on the initial measurement date of September 28, 2016 are presented below at fair value and were classified within the fair value hierarchy as follows:
The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the liability. Considerable judgment is necessary to interpret market data and determine an estimated fair value. The use of different market assumptions or valuation methods may have a material effect on the estimated fair values. Fair value of the Notes is determined using the residual method of accounting whereby, first, a portion of the proceeds from the issuance of the Notes is allocated to derivatives embedded in the Notes and the warrants issued in connection with the issuance of the Notes, and the proceeds so allocated are accounted for as a convertible note embedded derivative liability and warrant liability, respectively, and second, the remainder of the proceeds from the issuance of the Notes is allocated to the convertible notes, resulting in an original debt discount amounting to $4,916. The convertible notes will remain on the consolidated balance sheet at historical cost, accreted up for the amount of cumulative amortization of the debt discount over the life of the debt. The method of determining the fair value of the convertible note embedded derivative liability and warrant liability are described subsequently in this note. Market risk associated with the convertible note embedded derivative liability and warrant liability relates to the potential reduction in fair value and negative impact to future earnings from an increase in price of the Company's common stock. Please refer to Note 8. "Debt" for more information.
The carrying amounts of certain financial instruments, such as cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities, approximate fair value due to their relatively short maturities.
During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, all of the Notes were extinguished, the underlying indenture relieved, and all derivative liabilities related to the Notes settled. As such, as of June 30, 2019 and March 31, 2019, the Company’s financial liability presented below at fair value was classified within the fair value hierarchy as follows:
Convertible Note Embedded Derivative Liability
We evaluated the terms and features of our convertible notes and identified embedded derivatives (conversion options that contain “make-whole interest” provisions, fundamental change provisions, or down round conversion price adjustment provisions; collectively called the "convertible note embedded derivative liability") requiring bifurcation and accounting at fair value because the economic and contractual characteristics of the embedded derivatives met the criteria for bifurcation and separate accounting. ASC 815-10-15-83 (c) states that if terms implicitly or explicitly require or permit net settlement, then it can readily be settled net by means outside the contract, or it provides for delivery of an asset that puts the recipient in a position not substantially different from net settlement. The conversion features related to the convertible notes consists of a “make-whole interest” provision, fundamental change provision, and down round conversion price adjustment provisions, which, if the convertible notes were to be converted, would put the convertible note holder in a position not substantially different from net settlement. Given this fact pattern, the conversion features met the definition of embedded derivatives and required bifurcation and accounting at fair value.
The convertible note embedded derivative liability represented the fair value of the conversion option, fundamental change provision, and "make-whole interest" provisions, as well as the down round conversion price adjustment or conversion rate adjustment provisions of the convertible notes. There is no current observable market for these types of derivatives and, as such, the Company determined the fair value of the derivative liability using a lattice approach that incorporates a Monte Carlo simulation valuation model. A Monte Carlo valuation model considers the Company's future stock price, stock price volatility, probability of a change of control, and the trading information of the Company's common stock into which the notes are or may become convertible. The Company marked the derivative liability to market at the end of each reporting period due to the conversion price not being indexed to the Company's own stock.
Changes in the fair value of the convertible note embedded derivative liability were reflected in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income / (Loss) as “Change in fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability.”
During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, all of the Notes were extinguished, the underlying indenture relieved, and all derivative liabilities related to the Notes settled.
Due to the valuation of the derivative liability being highly sensitive to the trading price of the Company's stock, the increase and decrease in the trading price of the Company's stock has the impact of increasing the loss and gain, respectively. During the three months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recorded a gain from change in fair value of convertible note embedded derivative liability of $1,620 due to the decrease in the Company's closing stock price during the three months ended June 30, 2018 from $2.01 to $1.51. In addition to the Company's stock price being the primary driver, valuation of the derivative liability is also impacted by the conversion of underlying notes and associated warrants. See Note 8. "Debt" for more information regarding the conversion of Convertible Notes during fiscal years 2018 and 2019.
The Company issued detachable warrants with the convertible notes issued on September 28, 2016. The Company accounts for its warrants issued in accordance with US GAAP accounting guidance under ASC 815 applicable to derivative instruments, which requires every derivative instrument within its scope to be recorded on the balance sheet as either an asset or liability measured at its fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in earnings. Based on this guidance, the Company determined that these warrants did not meet the criteria for classification as equity. Accordingly, the Company classified the warrants as long-term liabilities. The warrants are subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date, with any change in fair value recognized as a component of other income (expense), net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income / (Loss). We estimated the fair value of these warrants at the respective balance sheet dates using a Black-Scholes model that considers the Company's future stock price. Option pricing models employ subjective factors to estimate warrant liability and, therefore, the assumptions used in the model are judgmental.
Changes in the fair value of the warrant liability are primarily related to the change in price of the underlying common stock of the Company and is reflected in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income / (Loss) as “Change in fair value of warrant liability.”
The following table provides a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances for the warrant liability measured at fair value using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3):
Due to the valuation of the derivative liability being highly sensitive to the trading price of the Company's stock, the increase and decrease in the trading price of the Company's stock has the impact of increasing the loss and gain, respectively. During the three months ended June 30, 2019, the Company recorded a loss from change in fair value of warrant liability of $5,226 due to the increase in the Company's closing stock price during the current quarter from $3.50 to $5.00. During the three months ended June 30, 2018, the Company recorded a gain from change in fair value of warrant liability of $1,570 due to the decrease in the Company's closing stock price during the three months ended June 30, 2018 from $2.01 to $1.51.
The market-based assumptions and estimates used in valuing the warrant liability include amounts in the following amounts:
(1) The Black-Scholes model assumes the continuously compounded equivalent (CCE) interest rate of 1.86% based on the average of the 1-year and 2-year U.S. Treasury securities as of the valuation date.
Changes in valuation assumptions can have a significant impact on the valuation of the warrant liability. For example, all other things being equal, a decrease/increase in our stock price, probability of change of control, or stock price volatility decreases/increases the valuation of the liabilities, respectively, whereas a decrease/increase in risk-free interest rates increases/decreases the valuation of the liabilities, respectively.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef